Interleukin‑35 is associated with the tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer
- Jialin Zhu
- Xueling Yang
- Yan Wang
- Haonan Zhang
- Zhi Guo
Affiliations: Department of Ultrasound Diagnosis and Treatment, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin 300060, P.R. China, Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin 300060, P.R. China
- Published online on: April 3, 2019 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.10208
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Interleukin (IL)‑35 is a novel member of the IL‑12 cytokine family, which exhibits a unique immune regulatory function. Previously, it was demonstrated that IL‑35 expression is significantly increased in a wide range of tumor tissues, promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting the anti‑tumor immune response. In the present study, the IL‑35 protein expression levels were measured in the plasma and tumor tissue of patients with prostate cancer (PCA), and its role was determined in the occurrence and progression of PCA. Plasma IL‑35 expression levels were measured using ELISA, and the associations of plasma IL‑35 and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to analyze the role of IL‑35 as a clinical biomarker for the diagnosis of PCA. Survival curve analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in the survival time in months in patients with PCA and increased expression levels of IL‑35 compared with the participants with relatively lower IL‑35 protein expression levels. IL‑35 expression was detected using immunohistochemical staining of a human PCA tissue microarray. Plasma IL‑35 expression levels in the patients with PCA were significantly increased compared with the patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and the healthy controls. An increase in the plasma concentration of IL‑35 was associated with progression of PCA stage and an increase in the Gleason score. Significant differences in AUCs for IL‑35 and prostate‑specific antigen were observed with regard to the presence of lymph node and distant metastases in patients with PCA. The expression levels of Epstein‑barr virus‑induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL‑12A (p35; the subunits which together form IL‑35) were significantly increased in the tumor tissue compared with the adjacent normal tissue. An association was identified between the Gleason score and the expression of EBI3 and p35. Therefore, increased expression of IL‑35 in the plasma and tumor tissues may contribute to the progression and metastasis of PCA, and IL‑35 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target for the treatment of PCA.