Open Access

Tumor growth under rhGM‑CSF application in an orthotopic rodent glioma model

  • Authors:
    • Thomas Linsenmann
    • Anna Jawork
    • Thomas Westermaier
    • György Homola
    • Camelia Maria Monoranu
    • Giles Hamilton Vince
    • Almuth Friederike Kessler
    • Ralf‑Ingo Ernestus
    • Mario Löhr
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: March 21, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.10179
  • Pages: 4843-4850
  • Copyright: © Linsenmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Regulation of the host immune response serves a pivotal role in the persistence and progression of malignant glioma. To date, cytotoxic cluster of differentiation (CD)‑8+ T and natural killer cells are considered the main cellular components of host tumor control. The influence of macrophages in an orthotropic C6 tumor implantation model was investigated and the aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of systemic macrophage‑activation on glioma growth by using the granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM‑CSF). A total of 20 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were orthotopically implanted with C6 glioma spheroids and treated subcutaneously with 10 µg/kg rhGM‑CSF every other day; 9 animals served as controls. Serial magnetic resonance imaging was performed on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 32 and 42 post‑implantation to monitor tumor volume. Histological work‑up included hematoxylin and eosin, CD68/ED‑1 macrophage, CD8 T‑cell and Ki‑67 MIB1 proliferation staining in gliomas and spleen. Experimental C6‑gliomas developed in 15/20 (75%) animals. In rhGM‑CSF treated rats, tumors developed significantly later and reached a smaller size (median, 134 mm³) compared with the controls (median, 262 mm³). On day 14, solid tumors presented in 11/17 (65%) rhGM‑CSF‑treated animals; in control animals tumor growth was detected in 3/9 animals on day 7 and in all animals on day 14. The mean survival time was 35 days in the rhGM‑CSF group and significantly longer when compared with the control group (24 days). Immunohistochemistry exhibited significantly more macrophages in tumors, particularly in the perivascular zone of the rhGM‑CSF group when compared with untreated animals; intratumoral CD8+ counts were equal in both groups. A systemic stimulation of macrophages by rhGM‑CSF resulted in significantly reduced and delayed tumor growth in the rodent C6 glioma model. The present data suggested a significant role of macrophages in host control of experimental gliomas on the innate immune response. Until now, the role of macrophages may have been underestimated in host glioma control.
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June 2019
Volume 17 Issue 6

Print ISSN: 1792-1074
Online ISSN:1792-1082

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APA
Linsenmann, T., Jawork, A., Westermaier, T., Homola, G., Monoranu, C.M., Vince, G.H. ... Löhr, M. (2019). Tumor growth under rhGM‑CSF application in an orthotopic rodent glioma model. Oncology Letters, 17, 4843-4850. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.10179
MLA
Linsenmann, T., Jawork, A., Westermaier, T., Homola, G., Monoranu, C. M., Vince, G. H., Kessler, A. F., Ernestus, R., Löhr, M."Tumor growth under rhGM‑CSF application in an orthotopic rodent glioma model". Oncology Letters 17.6 (2019): 4843-4850.
Chicago
Linsenmann, T., Jawork, A., Westermaier, T., Homola, G., Monoranu, C. M., Vince, G. H., Kessler, A. F., Ernestus, R., Löhr, M."Tumor growth under rhGM‑CSF application in an orthotopic rodent glioma model". Oncology Letters 17, no. 6 (2019): 4843-4850. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.10179