Capsaicin induces apoptosis and autophagy in human melanoma cells
- Haihan Chu
- Meng Li
- Xiuchun Wang
Affiliations: Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Jining First People's Hospital, Jining, Shandong 272011, P.R. China
- Published online on: April 3, 2019 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.10206
Copyright: © Chu
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
This article is mentioned in:
Melanoma is the most lethal type of skin cancer; rapid metastasis and resistance to conventional radio‑ and chemotherapy make melanoma the most aggressive type of skin cancer. In addition, there is a high recurrence rate within 1 year among patients with melanoma following traditional treatment by chemotherapy or immunotherapy, and these treatment options are only useful in advanced stages. As the efficiency of treatment options for melanoma is not ideal, the present study aimed to confirm that capsaicin has inhibitory effects on the human melanoma A375 and C8161 cell lines in vitro. Capsaicin, the active component of peppers, has been reported to possess substantial anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. Additionally, capsaicin exhibits an inhibitory effect on tumor growth in numerous malignant cell lines. In the present study, flow cytometry, fluorescent puncta detection and western blotting were performed. The experimental results indicated that capsaicin activated apoptosis, and that apoptosis induction was associated with poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and activation of caspase‑3. Additionally, the formation of autophagosomes and accumulation of microtubule‑associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B‑II and beclin 1 suggested that capsaicin induced autophagy in human melanoma cells. Furthermore, inhibiting capsaicin‑induced autophagy promoted the activation of cleaved caspase‑3 and PARP proteins, which are associated with apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of autophagy using 3‑MA enhanced capsaicin‑induced cell death, indicating that capsaicin‑induced autophagy is a pro‑survival process in cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that capsaicin induced cell apoptosis and autophagy in human melanoma cells and capsaicin may be considered as a novel candidate drug for melanoma treatment.