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LINC01638 silencing inhibits cancer cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinoma through interaction with RUNX2

  • Authors:
    • Wenying Zhuo
    • Dengdi Hu
    • Xihua Chen
    • Tian Zhang
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 25, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10191
  • Pages: 5275-5280
  • Copyright: © Zhuo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

lncRNA LINC01638 has been revealed to play an oncogenic role in triple negative breast cancer. The present study was carried out to investigate the involvement of LINC01638 in colorectal adenocarcinoma. In the present study it was observed that LINC01638 in plasma was upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients compared to healthy controls. Plasma levels of LINC01638 were affected by tumor size but not by distant metastasis. Plasma levels of Runt‑related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were also higher in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients than in healthy controls, and were positively correlated with plasma levels of LINC01638 in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients but not in healthy controls. ROC curve analysis revealed that upregulation of LINC01638 distinguished colorectal adenocarcinoma at stage I and II from healthy controls. LINC01638 shRNA knockdown led to RUNX2 downregulation, while RUNX2 overexpression exhibited no significant effects on LINC01638. LINC01638 shRNA knockdown inhibited and RUNX2 overexpression promoted the proliferation of colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. RUNX2 overexpression attenuated the effects of LINC01638 shRNA knockdown on cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, lncRNA LINC01638 silencing may inhibit cancer cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinoma through its interaction with RUNX2.

Introduction

Colorectal cancer, one of the most frequently diagnosed human malignancies is also the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in some countries, especially in Asia (1). With the development of cancer treatment strategies, survival of colorectal cancer patients at early stages has significantly improved during the past several decades (2,3). However, once cancer metastasis occurs surgical resection is not possible and the prognosis is extremely poor (4,5). Therefore, early diagnosis followed by proper treatment is important for the survival of colorectal cancer patients. It has been estimated that 277,000 new cases of colorectal cancer and 203,000 deaths caused by colorectal cancer will be averted between 2013 and 2030 if more than 80% of individuals received colorectal cancer screening by 2018 (6).

Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is a transcription factor that participates in the regulation of cell proliferation (7). A growing body of literatures has revealed that RUNX2 participates in cancer biology through its role in cancer cell growth and proliferation (8,9). Therefore, inhibition of RUNX2 expression may be a potential target for cancer therapy (10,11). Our preliminary microarray data revealed that expression levels of RUNX2 were positively correlated with the expression level of LINC01638 in plasma of 5 colorectal cancer patients, who were also included in the present study. lncRNA LINC01638 is a characterized oncogenic lncRNA in triple negative breast cancer (12). In the present study it was revealed that LINC01638 silencing may inhibit cancer cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinoma through its interaction with RUNX2.

Materials and methods

Patients and cell lines

Our study enrolled 88 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. These patients were admitted to Cixi People's Hospital (Cixi, China) from January 2015 to January 2018. Inclusion criteria were as follows: i) Confimed by pathological examination; ii) recevied no treatment before admission. Exclusion criteria were as follows: i) Patients suffering from multiple diseases; ii) patients who did not cooperate with researchers; iii) patients with mutiple organ metastasis. There were 10 patients in AJCC stage I, 16 in stage II, 14 in stage III and 48 in stage IV. Distant tumor metastasis occured in 40 patients, including 24 cases of liver metastasis (LIM) and 16 cases of lung metastasis (LUM). The 88 patients included 50 males and 38 females, with an age range of 28–64 years and a mean age of 45.2±6.1 years. Concurrently, 43 healthy volunteers were also included in the present study. The 43 healthy volunteers included 26 males and 17 females, with an age range of 26–65 years and a mean age of 45.8±6.6 years. Blood was extacted from each participant one day after admission before breakfast to prepare plasma samples using conventional methods. All participants signed informed consent. The present study was approved by the review board of the Ethics Committee of Cixi People's Hospital (Cixi, China).

WiDr (ATCC® CCL-218™) and HT-29 (ATCC® HTB-38™) human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; Manassas, VA, USA). Cells were cultured with ATCC-formulated McCoy's 5A Modified medium (cat. no. 30-2007) containing 10% fetal bovine serum. The WiDr cell line was authenticated by STR profiling before use.

Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)

A total RNA Purification kit (cat. no. 17200, Norgen Biotek Corp., Thorold, ON, CA) was used to extract total RNA, followed by DNaseI (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA) digestion and reverse transcription using Applied Biosystems™ High-Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit. Luna® Universal One-Step RT-qPCR kit [New England Biolabs (NEB), Ipswhich, MA, USA] was used to prepare PCR reaction systems. Primers used in PCR reactions were as follows: 5′-AATACATCAGCACTGTTGCCTTT-3′ (upstream) 5′-CTCCATACATACATCTCCAAAAAGT-3′ (downstream) for human lncRNA LINC01638; 5′-GTTATGAAAAACCAAGTAGCCAGGTC-3′ (forward) and 5′-GTAATCTGACTCTGTCCTTGTGGAT-3′ (reverse) for RUNX2; 5′-GACCTCTATGCCAACACAGT-3′ (upstream) and 5′-AGTACTTGCGCTCAGGAGGA-3′ (downstream) for human β-actin. Thermocycling conditions were 95°C for 30 sec, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 15 sec and 55°C for 30 sec. This experiment was repeated 3 times and 2−ΔΔCq method (13) was used to process all data.

Cell transfection

pIRES vectors containing LINC01638 shRNA and full length RUNX2 cDNA were synthesized by GenePharma (Shanghai, China). Cells were cultured to reach 70–80% confluence. Transfection was performed using Lipofectamine 3000 reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) with vectors at a dose of 12 nM. Transfection with empty vectors was used as a negative control and cells without transfection were used as control cells.

Cell proliferation assay

Cell proliferation ability was detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) kit (Beyotime Biotechnology, Jiangsu, China) when the LINC01638 knockdown rate reached 50% and the RUNX2 overexpression rate reached 200%. After trasfection, the cells were harvested to prepare cell suspensions (3×104 cells/ml). Cells were transferred to a 96-well plate with 0.1 ml cell suspension in each well. Cells were cultured under normal conditions (5% CO2, 37°C) and 10 µl CCK-8 solution was added into each well 24, 48, 72 and 96 h later. Cells were cultured for an additional 4 h, followed by assessment of absorbance at 450 nm using Fisherbrand™ accuSkan™ GO UV/Vis Microplate Spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.). This experiment was performed in triplicate.

Western blotting

A Total Protein Extraction kit (cat. no. 2140; Merck Millipore, Shanghai, China) was used to extract total protein. Protein concentrations were measured by BCA method. Following electrophoresis using 10% SDS-PAGE gel with 30 µg protein per lane, gel transfer on to PVDF membranes was performed. Blocking was performed in 5% non-fat milk for 2 h at room temperature. Subsequently, western blotting was performed using conventional methods. Antibodies used in this study included primary antibodies of rabbit anti-human RUNX2 (1:1,500; cat. no. ab23981; Abcam, Shanghai, China) and (1:1,500; cat. no. ab9485; Abcam) and secondary antibody goat anti-rabbit IgG-HRP (1:1,200; cat. no. MBS435036; MyBioSource, San Diego, CA, USA). Pierce ECL Western Blotting Substrate (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) was used to develop signals. Data were analyzed using ImageJ v1.46 software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA). This experiment was repeated 3 times.

Statistical analysis

All data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and were processed using Graphpad Prism 6 software (Graphpad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Student's t test was used for comparisons between 2 groups and ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used for comparisons among multiple groups. P<0.05 was the cut-off of statistical significance.

Results

LINC01638 in plasma is upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and is affected by tumor size

Based on imaging results, the diameter of the primary tumor was between 0–2 cm in 22 patients, between 2–4 cm in 32 patients and over 4 cm in 34 patients. As revealed in Fig. 1, the plasma levels of LINC01638 were significantly higher in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients with different sizes of primary tumors than in healthy controls (P<0.05). In addition, the plasma levels of LINC01638 increased with increasing diameter size of the primary tumor (P<0.05).

LINC01638 in plasma of colorectal adenocarcinoma patients is not affected by tumor distant metastasis

Among 88 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma, liver metastasis (LIM) was observed in 24 cases, lung metastasis (LUM) was observed in 16 cases and non-metastasis (NM) was observed in 48 cases. As revealed in Fig. 2, no significant differences were found in plasma levels of LINC01638 among patients with different types of metastasis.

Plasma RUNX2 mRNA levels are upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and are positively correlated with the levels of lncRNA LINC01638

Compared with healthy controls, significantly higher plasma levels of RUNX2 mRNA were observed in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients (P<0.05; Fig. 3A). Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between plasma levels of RUNX2 mRNA and lncRNA LINC01638 in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients (Fig. 3B). However, the correlation between the plasma levels of RUNX2 mRNA and LINC01638 was not strong in healthy controls (Fig. 3C).

Plasma LINC01638 has diagnostic potential for early stage colorectal adenocarcinoma

The present study included 26 patients in stage I and II, which are early stages of cancer development. ROC curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of plasma LINC01638 for early stage colorectal adenocarcinoma, and as revealed in Fig. 4, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.8953, with a standard error of 0.03914 and a 95% confidence interval of 0.8186–0.9721 (P<0.0001).

LINC01638 shRNA silencing mediates downreguation of RUNX2 in cells of WiDr and HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines

To further study the correlation between lncRNA LINC01638 and RUNX2, LINC01638 shRNA and RUNX2 expression vectors were transfected into cells of WiDr and HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, followed by detection of LINC01638 and RUNX2 expression by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. Compared with the control group (C) and the negative control group (NC), LINC01638 shRNA silencing (shRNA) led to significantly downregulated expression of RUNX2 protein in cells of both cell lines (P<0.05; Fig. 5A). In contrast, compared with the control group (C) and the negative control group (NC), RUNX2 overexpression (RUNX2) failed to significanly affect the expression of LINC01638 in cells of both cell lines (Fig. 5B, P<0.05).

LINC01638 shRNA inhibits cancer cell proliferation possibly through RUNX2

CCK-8 assay results revealed that, compared with the control group (C) and negative control group (NC), LINC01638 shRNA silencing (shRNA) significantly inhibited, while RUNX2 overexpression (RUNX2) significantly promoted the proliferation of cells of both WiDr and HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (P<0.05; Fig. 6). In addition, RUNX2 overexpression partially reversed the advese effect of LINC01638 shRNA silencing on cancer cell proliferation (P<0.05; Fig. 6).

Discussion

The function of lncRNA LINC01638 as an oncogene has only been characterized in triple negative breast cancer (12). The present study revealed that LINC01638 is also likely an oncogenic lncRNA in colorectal adenocarcinoma, which is the major type of colorectal cancer and accounts for >90% of total cases. The effects of LINC01638 in colorectal adenocarcinoma was likely achieved through interaction with RUNX2.

The development of colorectal cancer is accompanied with changes in expression patterns of a large set of lncRNAs (14,15). The altered level of circulating lncRNAs reflects the progression of this disease and can potentially assist in the diagnosis and guide treatment (16). In the present study circulating lncRNA LINC01638 was detected in the plasma of all participants. It was also observed that the levels of LINC01638 in plasma were significantly higher in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients than in healthy controls. In effect, upregulation of LINC01638 in plasma distinguished colorectal adenocarcinoma patients from healthy controls. Therefore, LINC01638 is also likely an oncogenic lncRNA in colorectal adenocarcinoma and detecting the changes in plasma levels of LINC01638 may assist in the early diagnosis of this disease.

Notably, in the present study it was observed that the plasma levels of LINC01638 were affected by the tumor size but not by distant metastasis, indicating its specific involvement in tumor growth. Our in vitro experiment further confirmed the role of LINC01638 in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinoma. In addition, LINC01638 shRNA silencing had no significant effects on CRC cell migration and invasion (revealed by Transwell migration and invasion assays; data not shown). Our data suggested that LINC01638 inhibition may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma.

As a transcription factor with an oncogenic role, RUNX2 is usually overexpressed in human cancers (17,18). In the present sudy it was also observed that plasma RUNX2 mRNA levels were upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients than in healthy controls. It is known that RUNX2 achieves it oncogenic functions in cancer biology not only by interacting with proteins, but also through its crosstalk with non-coding RNAs, such as lncRNAs (19,20). Notably, the present study revealed that the plasma levels of RUNX2 mRNA and LINC01638 were positively correlated in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients. Further in vitro analyses using colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines revealed that LINC01638 was likely an upstream activator of RUNX2 in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinoma. However, wthether the interaction between RUNX2 and LINC01638 is direct or indirect is unkown. It was surmised that the interaction between RUNX2 and LINC01638 is mediated by colorectal adenocarcinoma-related factors due to the lack of significant correlation between RUNX2 and LINC01638 in healthy controls.

The present study only detected the expression of RUNX2 and LINC01638 in plasma, however, their expression in cancer tissues is unknown. It has been reported that circulating lncRNA levels may reflect the level of lncRNAs in tumor tissues (21). Therefore, the aim of our future studies will be to detect RUNX2 and LINC01638 in cancer tissues. In the present study, only LINC01638 shRNA silencing was performed. The reason why LINC01638 knockdown was performed is that this lncRNA was revealed to be upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma, and thus, upregulation may fail to mimic in vivo conditions. However, our future studies will perform more comprehensive analysis including LINC01638 and RUNX2 knockdown. In the study it was determined LINC01638 levels were affected by tumor sizes but not by tumor metastasis. Therefore, the effects of LINC01638 overexpression were investigated on cancer cell proliferation. In fact, Transwell migration and invasion assays were also performed to investigate the effects of LINC01638 shRNA silencing on cell migration and invasion. The results indicated that LINC01638 shRNA silencing has no significant effects on CRC cell migration and invasion (data not shown).

In conclusion, RUNX2 and lncRNA LINC01638 were both upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma. LINC01638 silencing may inhibit cancer cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinoma by downregulating RUNX2.

Acknowledgements

Not applicable.

Funding

No funding was received.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Authors' contributions

WZ and DH designed and performed experiments. XC and TZ analyzed the data. DH drafted the manuscript and all authors approved the final version.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The present study was approved by the review board of the Ethics Committee of Cixi People's Hospital (Cixi, China). All participants signed informed consent.

Patient consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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June 2019
Volume 19 Issue 6

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APA
Zhuo, W., Hu, D., Chen, X., & Zhang, T. (2019). LINC01638 silencing inhibits cancer cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinoma through interaction with RUNX2. Molecular Medicine Reports, 19, 5275-5280. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10191
MLA
Zhuo, W., Hu, D., Chen, X., Zhang, T."LINC01638 silencing inhibits cancer cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinoma through interaction with RUNX2". Molecular Medicine Reports 19.6 (2019): 5275-5280.
Chicago
Zhuo, W., Hu, D., Chen, X., Zhang, T."LINC01638 silencing inhibits cancer cell proliferation in colorectal adenocarcinoma through interaction with RUNX2". Molecular Medicine Reports 19, no. 6 (2019): 5275-5280. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10191