Regulation of GKN1 expression in gastric carcinogenesis: A problem to resolve (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Judit Alarcón‑Millán
    • Dinorah Nashely Martínez‑Carrillo
    • Oscar Peralta‑Zaragoza
    • Gloria Fernández‑Tilapa
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  • Published online on: July 16, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2019.4843
  • Pages: 555-569
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Abstract

Gastrokine 1 (GKN1) is a protein expressed on the surface mucosa cells of the gastric antrum and fundus, which contributes to maintaining gastric homeostasis, inhibits inflammation and is a tumor suppressor. The expression of GKN1 decreases in mucosa that are either inflamed or infected by Helicobacter pylori, and is absent in gastric cancer. The measurement of circulating GKN1 concentration, the protein itself, or the mRNA in gastric tissue may be of use for the early diagnosis of cancer. The mechanisms that modulate the deregulation or silencing of GKN1 expression have not been completely described. The modification of histones, methylation of the GKN1 promoter, or proteasomal degradation of the protein have been detected in some patients; however, these mechanisms do not completely explain the absence of GKN1 or the reduction in GKN1 levels. Only NKX6.3 transcription factor has been shown to be a positive modulator of GKN1 transcription, although others also have an affinity with sequences in the promoter of this gene. While microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to directly or indirectly regulate the expression of genes at the post‑transcriptional level, the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of GKN1 has not been reported. The present review analyzes the information reported on the determination of GKN1 expression and the regulation of its expression at the transcriptional, post‑transcriptional and post‑translational levels; it proposes an integrated model that incorporates the regulation of GKN1 expression via transcription factors and miRNAs in H. pylori infection.
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September 2019
Volume 55 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Alarcón‑Millán, J., Martínez‑Carrillo, D.N., Peralta‑Zaragoza, O., & Fernández‑Tilapa, G. (2019). Regulation of GKN1 expression in gastric carcinogenesis: A problem to resolve (Review). International Journal of Oncology, 55, 555-569. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2019.4843
MLA
Alarcón‑Millán, J., Martínez‑Carrillo, D. N., Peralta‑Zaragoza, O., Fernández‑Tilapa, G."Regulation of GKN1 expression in gastric carcinogenesis: A problem to resolve (Review)". International Journal of Oncology 55.3 (2019): 555-569.
Chicago
Alarcón‑Millán, J., Martínez‑Carrillo, D. N., Peralta‑Zaragoza, O., Fernández‑Tilapa, G."Regulation of GKN1 expression in gastric carcinogenesis: A problem to resolve (Review)". International Journal of Oncology 55, no. 3 (2019): 555-569. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2019.4843