Open Access

Effect of HMGB1 and RAGE on brain injury and the protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin in intracranial‑sinus occlusion followed by mechanical thrombectomy recanalization

  • Authors:
    • Shu‑Wen Mu
    • Yuan Dang
    • Ya‑Cao Fan
    • Hao Zhang
    • Jian‑He Zhang
    • Wei Wang
    • Shou‑Sen Wang
    • Jian‑Jun Gu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: June 20, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2019.4248
  • Pages: 813-822
  • Copyright: © Mu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

The key to successful treatment of cerebral venous‑sinus occlusion (CVO) is the rapid recanalization of the sinus following venous‑sinus occlusion; however, rapid recanalization of the sinus may also cause secondary cerebral injury. The present study examined mechanical thrombectomy‑related brain injury and the possible molecular mechanisms following CVO recanalization, and investigated the protective effect of glycyrrhizin (GL) in CVO recanalization. The cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) model was induced in rats using 40% FeCl3. Mechanical thrombectomy was performed at 6 h post‑thrombosis. GL was administered to rats following thromboembolism. Neurological function and brain water content were measured prior to sacrifice of the rats. Serum malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nitric‑oxide synthase concentrations were measured. The expression levels of high‑mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its downstream inflammatory mediators were measured in serum and brain tissues. Rapid CVO recanalization caused brain injury, and the brain parenchymal damage and neurological deficits caused by CVO were not completely restored following recanalization. Similarly, following rapid recanalization in the venous sinus, the expression levels of HMGB1 and RAGE were lower than those in the CVST group, but remained significantly higher than those of the sham group. The combination of mechanical thrombectomy and GL improved cerebral infarction and cerebral edema in rats, and inhibited the extracellular transport of HMGB1, and the expression of downstream inflammatory factors and oxidative‑stress products. The administration of exogenous recombinant HMGB1 reversed the neural protective effects of GL. In conclusion, mechanical thrombectomy subsequent to CVO in rats can cause brain injury following recanalization. HMGB1 and RAGE promote inflammation in the process of brain injury following recanalization. GL has a relatively reliable neuroprotective effect on brain injury by inhibiting HMGB1 and its downstream inflammatory factors, and decreasing oxidative stress.
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September 2019
Volume 44 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1107-3756
Online ISSN:1791-244X

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APA
Mu, S., Dang, Y., Fan, Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, J., Wang, W. ... Gu, J. (2019). Effect of HMGB1 and RAGE on brain injury and the protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin in intracranial‑sinus occlusion followed by mechanical thrombectomy recanalization. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 44, 813-822. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2019.4248
MLA
Mu, S., Dang, Y., Fan, Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, J., Wang, W., Wang, S., Gu, J."Effect of HMGB1 and RAGE on brain injury and the protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin in intracranial‑sinus occlusion followed by mechanical thrombectomy recanalization". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 44.3 (2019): 813-822.
Chicago
Mu, S., Dang, Y., Fan, Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, J., Wang, W., Wang, S., Gu, J."Effect of HMGB1 and RAGE on brain injury and the protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin in intracranial‑sinus occlusion followed by mechanical thrombectomy recanalization". International Journal of Molecular Medicine 44, no. 3 (2019): 813-822. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2019.4248