Open Access

Astragaloside IV ameliorates high glucose‑induced HK‑2 cell apoptosis and oxidative stress by regulating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway

  • Authors:
    • Jing Wang
    • Hong‑Min Guo
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 17, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.7495
  • Pages: 4409-4416
  • Copyright: © Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )


Abstract

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the major cause of end‑stage renal disease increasing the mortality risk of diabetes. Research has demonstrated that the oxidative damage and apoptosis of renal tubular cells is present during DN. Astragaloside IV (AS‑IV) has been widely used for the treatment of many diseases, however, the role and mechanism by which AS‑IV may ameliorate high glucose‑induced apoptosis and oxidative stress of the human proximal tubular cell line HK‑2 remains largely unknown. The present study investigated the effect of AS‑IV on high glucose‑induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in HK‑2 cells. Cell viability, apoptosis and protein expression were detected by Trypan blue staining, Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'‑deoxyuridine‑5'‑triphosphate nick‑end labelling, flow cytometry and western blot analyses. In addition, enzymatic activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‑Px), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxide (LPO), were measured with the corresponding detection kits. DCFH‑DA assay and flow cytometry were performed to detect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction were conducted to evaluate protein and mRNA expressions of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway. The results demonstrated that AS‑IV significantly enhanced HK‑2 cell viability induced by high glucose in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, AS‑IV notably inhibited HK‑2 cell apoptosis stimulated by high glucose, which may be associated with inhibition of BCL2 associated X protein, Cleaved‑caspase‑3 and Cleaved‑caspase‑9, expression and the promotion of Bcl‑2. AS‑IV significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH‑Px and CAT, and decreased the high‑glucose‑induced ROS production in HK‑2 cells, in a dose‑dependent manner. Finally, it was determined that AS‑IV regulated the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and inhibited the expression of liver‑type fatty acid binding protein. In conclusion, these findings may provide evidence that AS‑IV has a potential role for the treatment of DN.

Introduction

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the major cause of end-stage renal disease increasing the mortality risk of diabetes (1). Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis can occur in the early stage of DN leading to deterioration of renal function (2,3). Previous studies determined that the lesions of DN were mainly glomerulosclerosis, with recent studies confirming that diabetic renal injury also occurs in the renal tubules (4). Under pathological conditions, damaged renal tubular epithelial cells could actively participate in the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis (5). Research has demonstrated that the oxidative damage and apoptosis of renal tubular cells is present in the early stage of DN (6). Hyperglycemia could increase apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and contribute to tubular injury in DN (7). It was suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) could induce apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells (8). A previous study reported that inhibition of ROS production and apoptotic response could protect against hyperglycemia-induced tubular injury (9).

Liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), abundantly found in both the normal and diseased kidney, has been observed in the convoluted and straight portion of the proximal tubules (10). It has been reported that L-FABP is secreted from proximal tubules during oxidative stress or ischemia events (11). L-FABP has an important role in kidney injury and repair, and the expression of L-FABP predicts the occurrence and severity of various kidney diseases (12,13). L-FABP is considered to be a biomarker for predicting the prognosis of kidney diseases (14).

Astragaloside IV (AS-IV; chemical structure in Fig. 1A), the main active component of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus, has been widely used for the treatment of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, hepatitis and diabetes (15,16). Recent studies have demonstrated that AS-IV alleviated lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury via downregulating cytokines, C-C motif chemokine receptor type 5 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and elevating anti-oxidative ability (17). In addition, AS-IV suppressed transforming growth factor-β1-induced fibrosis of cultured mouse renal fibroblasts via inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways (18,19). However, the role and mechanisms by which AS-IV ameliorates high glucose-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis and oxidative stress remain largely unknown. In the present study, the effect of AS-IV on high glucose-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis and oxidative stress was investigated. Findings may provide sufficient evidence that AS-IV has potential as a therapeutic for the treatment of DN.

Materials and methods

Cell culture

The human proximal tubular cell line HK-2 was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). HK-2 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media (Gibco; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA)/F-12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Gibco) and 100 u/ml penicillin and 100 mg/ml streptomycin (Gibco), under standard conditions (37°C, 5% CO2).

Trypan blue staining

Cells were cultured in 6-well plates for 24 h then treated with 30 mmol/l glucose and different doses of AS-IV (ChromaDex, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mM) for 48 h. Trypan blue solution (0.4%) was added to cell suspension. After incubation for 3 min, live cells and dead cells were counted.

Cell Counting Kit-8 assay

Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, Shanghai, China) was performed to detect HK-2 viability. Briefly, HK-2 cells were seeded into 96-well plates (Costar; Corning Incorporated, NY, USA) and exposed to 30 mmol/l glucose and different doses of AS-IV. Following treatment, 10 µl of CCK-8 solution was added into each well for 1 h at 37°C. The absorbance at 450 nm was recorded using a micro-plate reader (Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc., Winooski, VT, USA).

Cell apoptosis assay

Cell apoptosis was detected using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2′-deoxyuridine-5′-triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay (Millipore; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany). Cells were washed with PBS and cells were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde. TUNEL reagents were used to stain the apoptotic cells. Optical microscopy (Olympus Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used to analyze samples (magnification, ×200).

In addition, cell apoptosis was tested with flow cytometry using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) apoptosis detection kit (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology). Cells were washed with PBS and then treated with different concentrations of AS-IV for 48 h. Then 10 µl of Annexin V-FITC and 5 µl of propidium iodide were added to each sample well for 15 min at RT in the dark. Samples were diluted with 300 µl binding buffer then filtered through 300 µm mesh cell filters. The apoptotic rate was measured using flow cytometry (Becton-Dickinson and Company; BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA).

Western blot analysis

After the appropriate treatment, cells were subjected to the extraction of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In brief, 250 µl extraction buffer (10 mmol/l Tris-HCL, 10 mmol/l KCl, 5 mmol/l MgCl2, pH 7.6) was added to cells. Then 0.6% Triton X-100 was added to disrupt cell membranes. A total of 250 µl Nuclear Isolation Buffer (10 mmol/l Tris-HCL, 10 mmol/l KCl, 5 mmol/l MgCl2, 0.35 mol/l sucrose) was added then density gradient centrifugation was conducted for 10 min. The supernatant (cytoplasmic proteins) was transferred to another centrifuge tube and four volumes of pre-chilled acetone were added at −20°C and incubated overnight. The supernatant was centrifuged at 4°C and 12,000 × g for 30 min. Following centrifugation, protein concentrations were determined using a BCA protein kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.). Samples with equal amounts of protein (25 µg) were then separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes. Membranes were blocked with 5% non-fat milk for 1 h, then incubated with 1:1,000 dilutions (v/v) of the primary antibodies overnight at 4°C. Primary antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. and included antibodies against caspase-3 (cat. no. 9662; 1:1,000 dilution), caspase-9 (cat. no. 9508; 1:1,000 dilution), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax) (cat. no. 2774; 1:1,000 dilution), Bcl-2 (cat. no. 2772; 1:1,000 dilution), L-FABP (cat. no. 13368; 1:1,000 dilution) and GAPDH (cat. no. 8884; 1:2,000 dilution). Subsequently, membranes were exposed to goat anti-mouse horseradish peroxidase-labeled secondary antibody (cat. no. 7076; 1:1,000; Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA, USA) and incubated for 1 h at 25°C with an enhanced chemiluminescence reagent system (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.). GAPDH was used as the loading control. The protein bands were analyzed using ImageJ software (version 1.46; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA).

Measurement of antioxidant enzyme activities

Enzymatic activities of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and LPO were measured with corresponding detection kits according to the manufacturer's protocol (Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, Nanjing, China).

Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay

DCFH-DA assay was conducted to detect ROS levels. Cells were cultivated at 6×104 per well in 24-well plates. Subsequently, cells were stained with 20 µM of DCFH-DA (Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA) in the dark for 1 h. Then fluorescence intensity was detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry with an excitation and emission wavelength of 485 and 530 nm.

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)

Total RNA was extracted from cells with TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer's protocol. After that, complementary DNA was synthesized by Prime Script RT kit (Takara Bio, Inc., Otsu, Japan). The relative mRNA expression was quantified using an ABI 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) with the SYBR Green PCR kit (Takara Bio, Inc.). The following primer pairs were used for the qPCR: Nrf2 forward, 5′-GGTATTTGACTTCAGTCAA-3′ and reverse, 5′-GGCTGAGACTAGTACAGTT-3′; HO-1 forward, 5′-CGTAAATGACTTCAGTCAA-3′ and reverse, 5′-CGCAGAGACTAGTACAGTT-3′; Keap1 forward, 5′-GGTACCTGACTCCAGTCAG-3′ and reverse, 5′-TGTTGAGACTAGTACAGTT-3′; NQO1 forward, 5′-TAATTATTTGACTTCAGTCGC-3′ and reverse, 5′-CCCTGAGACTAGTACAGCG-3′; U6 forward, 5′-CGTATTTGACTTCAGTCGT-3′ and reverse, 5′-CTCCTGAGACTAGTACATG-3′. The PCR program was as follows: 95°C for 3 min followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 10 sec, 60°C for 30 sec and 72°C for 3 min. All fold changes were calculated using the comparative Cq (ΔΔCq) method using U6 for normalization. The mRNA levels were normalized to the housekeeping gene U6 using the 2−ΔΔCq method (20).

Statistical analysis

GraphPad Prism (version 5.0; GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA) was used to conduct all statistical analysis. All measurements were performed in triplicate. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. Statistical differences between the means of multiple groups were analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance followed by a Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference.

Results

Cytotoxic effect of AS-IV on HK-2 cells

A trypan blue dye test was conducted to determine cells cytotoxicity of AS-IV on HK-2 cells. Results demonstrated that HK-2 cell cytotoxicity after treatment with AS-IV for 24 h was not significantly changed at concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 µM compared with the control (Fig. 1B). Based on the results of the trypan blue dye test, 10, 20 and 40 µM AS-IV were selected as the experimental concentrations for subsequent experiments.

Effect of AS-IV on viability of HK-2 cells induced with high glucose

CCK-8 assay was conducted to investigate the effect of AS-IV on high glucose-induced HK-2 cell viability. High glucose significantly inhibited cell viability. Conversely, 10, 20 and 40 µM of AS-IV significantly enhanced cell viability when compared with the high glucose group (Fig. 1C).

Effect of AS-IV on HK-2 cell apoptosis induced by high glucose

The effect of AS-IV on HK-2 cell apoptosis induced by high glucose was determined by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry. TUNEL assay demonstrated that high glucose significantly increased HK-2 cell apoptosis compared with the control. However, AS-IV remarkably suppressed this effect in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 2A). In addition, flow cytometry analysis indicated that the proportion of apoptotic cells (Q2 + Q3) in the control group and in the high glucose group were 5.80±0.47 and 24.67±1.45%, respectively. AS-IV remarkably reduced cell apoptosis induced by high glucose, and the proportion of apoptotic cells (Q2+Q3) were 18.67±0.88, 14.00±0.58 and 9.67±0.33% in HK-2 cells treated with 10, 20 and 40 µM of AS-IV respectively (Fig. 2B). The expression of apoptosis-related proteins including Cleaved-Caspase-3, Cleaved-Caspase-9, BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2, were determined by western blot analysis. Results demonstrated that high glucose significantly promoted the expressions of Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3 and Cleaved Caspase-9 and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2, whilst AS-IV treatment notably ameliorated these effects (Fig. 2C).

Effect of AS-IV on activities of antioxidant enzymes and ROS production of HK-2 cells induced with high glucose

The activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were evaluated. Results indicated that high glucose notably decreased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT compared with the control. Treatment with AS-IV (10, 20 and 40 µM) significantly increased antioxidant activity (Fig. 3A). The activity of LPO, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was significantly increased in HK-2 cells induced with high glucose compared with the control whilst AS-IV decreased this activity in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 3B).

DCFH-DA assay was used to analyze ROS production of HK-2 cells. The results indicated that high glucose significantly increased ROS production whilst AS-IV significantly decreased this production (Fig. 3C). In addition, flow cytometry results revealed that AS-IV notably decreased ROS production by HK-2 cells induced with high glucose in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 3D).

Effect of AS-IV on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway of HK-2 cells induced with high glucose

It is well recognized that the nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway has an important role in regulating oxidative stress. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were conducted to assess the activity of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. The results demonstrated that high glucose drastically decreased the Nrf2 nuclear expression whilst AS-IV notably increased this expression (Fig. 4A). In addition, the Nrf2 cytosolic expression was increased by high glucose and was significantly downregulated in the AS-IV-treatment group (Fig. 4A).

RT-qPCR was performed to evaluate the mRNA expression of Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), kelch like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1). The results demonstrated that high glucose significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of Nrf2 and its target genes, HO-1, Keap1 and NQO1, compared with the control group. However, AS-IV notably ameliorated this effect in a dose dependent manner (Fig. 4B).

Effect of AS-IV on the expression of L-FABP by HK-2 cells induced with high glucose

L-FABP, a promising biomarker of kidney diseases, could attenuate renal injury (21). Studies have identified that LABP is the downstream gene of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway (22). Western blot analysis results demonstrated that high glucose significantly promoted the protein level of L-FABP, whilst AS-IV treatment markedly reversed this effect (Fig. 5).

Discussion

DN is one of the most serious and common complications of diabetes eventually leading to chronic renal failure. It is one of the important reasons for the deformity and death of diabetic patients. However, the pathogenesis of DN has not been elucidated to date (23). In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress has an important role in the occurrence of DN (24). Hyperglycemia, a starting factor of diabetic complications, leads to a large increase in production of ROS (25). The oxidation of non-enzyme glycosylated proteins and glucose has been demonstrated to increase the level of oxidative stress and eventually lead to renal cell damage. Stimulation with high glucose is one of the initiating factors in the development of DN (26). High glucose also induces oxidative stress and produces ROS. ROS not only directly attacks lipid, protein and DNA but also causes renal damage and serves as the upstream signal molecule of the high glucose-induced signaling pathway (27). The present study determined that high glucose treatment significantly promoted HK-2 cell apoptosis, decreased HK-2 cell viability, inhibited the activities of antioxidant enzymes and promoted the production of ROS. However, AS-IV, the main active component of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus, significantly ameliorated these effects. AS-IV notably decreased high glucose-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis and increased cell viability, promoted the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced ROS production

The Nrf2/Keap1 pathway is one of the most important endogenous protective mechanisms in response to oxidative stress and has become a drug target for the treatment of cancer, neuropathy, pulmonary fibrosis, diabetes and its complications (28). In response to ROS damage, the body has a complex endogenous oxidative stress response system that can produce a series of protective proteins to alleviate the damage. This defense mechanism can be mediated by a specific DNA-promoter binding sequence, ARE, which can initiate the expression of many downstream antioxidant enzymes. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 factor is the activator of this sequence (29). Under normal conditions, the expression of Nrf2 in cells is downregulated, and mainly relies on ubiquitination of Keapl and degradation of proteasomes in cytoplasm. When activated, for example by ROS, Nrf2 enters the nucleus and combines with the ARE sequence to activate the transcription of a variety of antioxidant genes to protect the cells against excessive ROS stimulation (30,31). The Nrf2/ARE pathway has recently been identified as the most important endogenous antioxidant stress pathway, and can activate a variety of downstream protective genes, such as HO-1, the main antioxidant system SOD, glutathione system enzyme GPx, GST and quinone oxidoreductase NQO1 (32). Studies have demonstrated that activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway could induce antioxidant enzyme and phase II drug metabolizing enzyme production, enhancing the ability of cells to clean up ROS, in order to maintain the redox balance and reduce oxidative damage. The present study demonstrated that high glucose significantly decreased Nrf2 nuclear expression whilst AS-IV notably increased this expression. In addition, high glucose significantly inhibited mRNA expression of Nrf2 and its target genes, HO-1, Keap1 and NQO1, compared with the control group. However, AS-IV notably ameliorated this effect.

L-FABP, a member of the first cloned and purified fatty acid binding protein, is an effective intracellular antioxidant that can scavenge ROS and alleviate oxidative stress (33). L-FABP is widespread in the proximal curved renal tubules and has attracted research interest due to its relationship with kidney diseases (14). Studies have established the model of L-FABP in transgenic mice to observe the effect of L-FABP on glomerular damage. It was determined that renal tubule L-FABP expression can serve an important role in renal protection by reducing oxidative stress (34). The present study demonstrated that high glucose significantly increased L-FABP expression, whilst AS-IV significantly reduced this level. Increased L-FABP expression protected cells from oxidative damage when exposed to high glucose treatment. In a previous study, L-FABP was a downstream gene of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and participated in protecting cells from cold stress (22). However, considering the apparent reduction in L-FABP expression following treatment with AS-IV, it may be hypothesized that L-FABP may act independently of AS-IV-mediated Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway when exposed to high glucose. The mechanisms of L-FABP in high glucose against oxidative damage should be further investigated.

In conclusion, the present study provided novel evidence that AS-IV could increase cell viability, and suppress cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. AS-IV notably increased Nrf2 expression which is an important endogenous protective mechanism in response to oxidative stress, indicating that AS-IV decreases high glucose-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis and oxidative stress by regulating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Furthermore, L-FABP may inhibit glucose-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis and oxidative independently of the AS-IV mediated Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Taken together, these results indicated that AS-IV may have a potential role in the treatment of DN.

Acknowledgements

Not applicable.

Funding

No funding was received.

Availability of data and materials

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.

Authors' contributions

JW and HMG conceived and designed the experiments. JW performed the experiments. HMG analyzed the data. JW and HMG wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Patient consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

1 

Bagby SP: Diabetic nephropathy and proximal tubule ROS: Challenging our glomerulocentricity. Kidney Int. 71:1199–1202. 2007. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

2 

Singh DK, Winocour P and Farrington K: Mechanisms of disease: The hypoxic tubular hypothesis of diabetic nephropathy. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 4:216–226. 2008. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

3 

Hovind P, Rossing P, Tarnow L, Smidt UM and Parving HH: Progression of diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 59:702–709. 2001. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

4 

Hovind P, Tarnow L, Rossing K, Rossing P, Eising S, Larsen N, Binder C and Parving HH: Decreasing incidence of severe diabetic microangiopathy in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 26:1258–1264. 2003. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

5 

Balakumar P, Arora MK, Ganti SS, Reddy J and Singh M: Recent advances in pharmacotherapy for diabetic nephropathy: Current perspectives and future directions. Pharmacol Res. 60:24–32. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

6 

Bălăşescu E, Cioplea M, Brînzea A, Nedelcu R, Zurac S and Ion DA: Immunohistochemical aspects of cell death in diabetic nephropathy. Rom J Intern Med. 54:54–62. 2016.PubMed/NCBI

7 

Kumar D, Robertson S and Burns KD: Evidence of apoptosis in human diabetic kidney. Mol Cell Biochem. 259:67–70. 2004. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

8 

Yu T, Sheu SS, Robotham JL and Yoon Y: Mitochondrial fission mediates high glucose-induced cell death through elevated production of reactive oxygen species. Cardiovasc Res. 79:341–351. 2008. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

9 

Taneda S, Honda K, Tomidokoro K, Uto K, Nitta K and Oda H: Eicosapentaenoic acid restores diabetic tubular injury through regulating oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 299:F1451–F1461. 2010. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

10 

Kamijo-Ikemori A, Sugaya T, Matsui K, Yokoyama T and Kimura K: Roles of human liver type fatty acid binding protein in kidney disease clarified using hL-FABP chromosomal transgenic mice. Nephrol (Carlton). 16:539–544. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar

11 

Ito H, Yamashita H, Nakashima M, Takaki A, Yukawa C, Matsumoto S, Omoto T, Shinozaki M, Nishio S, Abe M, et al: Current metabolic status affects urinary liver-type fatty-acid binding protein in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Med Res. 9:366–373. 2017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

12 

Yang J, Choi HM, Seo MY, Lee JY, Kim K, Jun H, Jung CW, Park KT, Kim MG, Jo SK, et al: Urine liver-type fatty acidbinding protein predicts graft outcome up to 2 years after kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc. 46:376–380. 2014. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

13 

Parr SK, Clark AJ, Bian A, Shintani AK, Wickersham NE, Ware LB, Ikizler TA and Siew ED: Urinary L-FABP predicts poor outcomes in critically ill patients with early acute kidney injury. Kidney Int. 87:640–648. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

14 

Xu Y, Xie Y, Shao X, Ni Z and Mou S: L-FABP: A novel biomarker of kidney disease. Clin Chim Acta. 445:85–90. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

15 

Liu X, Wang W, Song G, Wei X, Zeng Y, Han P, Wang D, Shao M, Wu J, Sun H, et al: Astragaloside IV ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by modulating the mitochondrial quality control network. PLoS One. 12:e01825582017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

16 

Chu C, Qi LW, Liu EH, Li B, Gao W and Li P: Radix astragali (Astragalus): Latest advancements and trends in chemistry, analysis, pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Curr Org Chem. 14:1792–1807. 2010. View Article : Google Scholar

17 

Zhou W, Chen Y and Zhang X: Astragaloside IV alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury through down-regulating cytokines, CCR5 and p-ERK, and elevating anti-oxidative ability. Med Sci Monit. 23:1413–1420. 2017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

18 

Gui D, Huang J, Guo Y, Chen J, Chen Y, Xiao W, Liu X and Wang N: Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory genes expression. Cytokine. 61:970–977. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

19 

Zheng R, Deng YY, Chen YP, Fan JM, Zhang MH, Zhong YF, Zhu R and Wang L: Astragaloside IV attenuates complement membranous attack complex induced podocyte injury through the MAPK pathway. Phytother Res. 26:892–898. 2012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

20 

Livak KJ and Schmittgen TD: Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods. 25:402–408. 2001. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

21 

Griffin BR, Faubel S and Edelstein CL: Biomarkers of drug-induced kidney toxicity. Ther Drug Monit. 41:213–226. 2019. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

22 

Chen XY, Li R and Geng ZY: Cold stress initiates the Nrf2/UGT1A1/L-FABP signaling pathway in chickens. Poult Sci. 94:2597–603. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

23 

Afkarian M, Sachs MC, Kestenbaum B, Hirsch IB, Tuttle KR, Himmelfarb J and de Boer IH: Kidney disease and increased mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 24:302–308. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

24 

Forbes JM and Cooper ME: Oxidative stress as a major culprit in kidney disease in diabetes. Diabetes. 57:1446–1454. 2008. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

25 

Piwkowska A, Rogacka D, Audzeyenka I, Jankowski M and Angielski S: High glucose concentration affects the oxidant-antioxidant balance in cultured mouse podocytes. J Cell Biochem. 112:1661–1672. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

26 

Tkachev VO, Menshchikova EB and Zenkov NK: Mechanism of the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE signaling system. Biochemistry (Mosc). 76:407–422. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

27 

He T, Guan X, Wang S, Xiao T, Yang K, Xu X, Wang J and Zhao J: Resveratrol prevents high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular epithelial cells by inhibiting NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK pathway. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 402:13–20. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

28 

Zhang Y, Fan L, Li H, Wang X, Xu W, Chu K and Lin Y: Gualou Guizhi granule protects against oxidative injury by activating Nrf2/ARE pathway in rats and PC12 cells. Neurochem Res. 43:1003–1009. 2018. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

29 

Sun T, Yu HY, Zhang CL, Zhu TN and Huang SH: Respiratory syncytial virus infection up-regulates TLR7 expression by inducing oxidative stress via the Nrf2/ARE pathway in A549 cells. Arch Virol. 163:1209–1217. 2018. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

30 

Hu R, Saw CL, Yu R and Kong AT: Regulation of Nrf2 signaling for cancer chemoprevention: Antioxidant coupled with antiinflammatory. Antioxid Redox Signal. 13:1679–1698. 2010. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

31 

Baird L and Dinkova Kostova AT: The cytoprotective role of the Keapl-Nrf2 pathway. Arch Toxicol. 85:241–272. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

32 

Liu W, Wang HX, Wang LK, Saw Constance LL and Luo C: COX-2 and Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways in anti-inflammation and antioxidation in vivo and in vitro. Chin Bul Life Sci. 10:1027–1033. 2011.

33 

Bordewick U, Heese M, Börchers T, Robenek H and Spener F: Compartmentation of hepatic fatty-acid-binding protein in liver cells and its effect on microsomal phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 370:229–238. 1989. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

34 

Hisamichi M, Kamijo-Ikemori A, Sugaya T, Hoshino S, Kimura K and Shibagaki Y: Role of bardoxolone methyl, a nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 activator, in aldosterone- and salt-induced renal injury. Hypertens Res. 41:8–17. 2018. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

Related Articles

Journal Cover

June 2019
Volume 17 Issue 6

Print ISSN: 1792-0981
Online ISSN:1792-1015

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
APA
Wang, J., & Wang, J. (2019). Astragaloside IV ameliorates high glucose‑induced HK‑2 cell apoptosis and oxidative stress by regulating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 17, 4409-4416. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.7495
MLA
Wang, J., Guo, H."Astragaloside IV ameliorates high glucose‑induced HK‑2 cell apoptosis and oxidative stress by regulating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 17.6 (2019): 4409-4416.
Chicago
Wang, J., Guo, H."Astragaloside IV ameliorates high glucose‑induced HK‑2 cell apoptosis and oxidative stress by regulating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 17, no. 6 (2019): 4409-4416. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.7495