Open Access

Paediatric virology and human papillomaviruses: An update

  • Authors:
    • Ioannis N. Mammas
    • Tina Dalianis
    • Sotiros G. Doukas
    • Apostolos Zaravinos
    • Vassilis Achtsidis
    • Prakash Thiagarajan
    • Maria Theodoridou
    • Demetrios A. Spandidos
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 22, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.7516
  • Pages: 4337-4343
  • Copyright: © Mammas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )


Abstract

Almost 10 years ago, in October, 2008, the scientist who reported for the first time the association between human papillomaviruses (HPV) and cervical cancer, was awarded with the Nobel prize. In the years that followed, Professor Harald zur Hausen actively supported the value of the HPV vaccination in the prevention of different types of cancer and highlighted the necessity of its introduction in both girls and boys. However, to date, in the majority of countries, HPV vaccination among male adolescents has not been implemented into the national vaccination schemes, while in several countries, including Greece, the participation rate to HPV vaccination among female adolescents still remains low. Recent data indicate that catch‑up HPV vaccination among young women has been extremely useful and has exhibited a significant effect in decreasing the prevalence of HPV. While the marketed current HPV vaccines prevent anogenital HPV infection, their impact on the natural history of oral HPV and their efficacy in preventing HPV‑related head and neck carcinomas need to be further investigated. Juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, as well as HPV‑associated conjunctival papillomas continue to be observed in childhood and their clinical management involves different therapeutic approaches with controversial outcomes. This review article provides an overview of recent views and advances on HPV infections and prevention in childhood that were presented at the ‘4th Workshop on Paediatric Virology' on Saturday September 22, 2018 in Athens, Greece.

References

1 

Mammas IN, Greenough A, Theodoridou M, Kramvis A, Rusan M, Melidou A, Korovessi P, Papaioannou G, Papatheodoropoulou A, Koutsaftiki C, et al: Paediatric Virology and its interaction between basic science and clinical practice (Review). Int J Mol Med. 41:1165–1176. 2018.PubMed/NCBI

2 

Mammas IN, Theodoridou M, Kramvis A, Thiagarajan P, Gardner S, Papaioannou G, Melidou A, Koutsaki M, Kostagianni G, Achtsidis V, et al: Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge. Exp Ther Med. 13:364–377. 2017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

3 

Mammas IN, Greenough A, Theodoridou M, Kramvis A, Christaki I, Koutsaftiki C, Koutsaki M, Portaliou DM, Kostagianni G, Panagopoulou P, et al: Current views and advances on Paediatric Virology: An update for paediatric trainees. Exp Ther Med. 11:6–14. 2016. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

4 

Mammas IN, Theodoridou M, Thiagarajan P, Melidou A, Papaioannou G, Korovessi P, et al: A paediatric influenza update 100 years after the Skyros island Spanish flu outbreak. Exp Ther Med (In press).

5 

zur Hausen H: Papillomaviruses and cancer: From basic studies to clinical application. Nat Rev Cancer. 2:342–350. 2002. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

6 

Grün N, Du J, Ährlund-Richter A, Mirzaie L, Ramqvist T and Dalianis T: Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in youth at a youth clinic after the initiation of HPV-catch up vaccination in comparison to previously obtained HPV prevalence in the same clinic and to that in high school youth in Sweden. Int J Mol Med. 42:S162018.

7 

Ramqvist T, Du J, Lundén M, Ahrlund-Richter S, Ferreira J, Marions L, Sparén P, Andersson S and Dalianis T: Pre-vaccination prevalence of human papillomavirus types in the genital tract of 15–23-year-old women attending a youth health clinic in Stockholm, Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 43:115–121. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

8 

Du J, Nordfors C, Ährlund-Richter A, Sobkowiak M, Romanitan M, Näsman A, Andersson S, Ramqvist T and Dalianis T: Prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection among youth, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 18:1468–1471. 2012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

9 

Nordfors C, Grün N, Haeggblom L, Tertipis N, Sivars L, Mattebo M, Larsson M, Häggström-Nordin E, Tydén T, Ramqvist T, et al: Oral human papillomavirus prevalence in high school students of one municipality in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 45:878–881. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

10 

Grün N, Ährlund-Richter A, Franzén J, Mirzaie L, Marions L, Ramqvist T and Dalianis T: Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in youth and cervical HPV prevalence in women attending a youth clinic in Sweden, a follow up-study 2013–2014 after gradual introduction of public HPV vaccination. Infect Dis (Lond). 47:57–61. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

11 

Grün N, Ährlund-Richter A, Franzén J, Mirzaie L, Marions L, Ramqvist T and Dalianis T: Follow-up on oral and cervical human papillomavirus prevalence 2013–2015 in youth at a youth clinic in Stockholm, Sweden. Infect Dis (Lond). 48:169–170. 2016. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

12 

Mammas IN, Theodoridou M, Sourvinos G and Spandidos DA: Exploring effective interventions to increase adolescents' vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV). Int J Mol Med. 42:S172018.

13 

Mammas IN and Spandidos DA: Paediatric Virology as a new educational initiative: An interview with Nobelist Professor of Virology Harald zur Hausen. Exp Ther Med. 14:3329–3331. 2017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

14 

Zur Hausen H, Mammas IN and Spandidos DA: HPV vaccination in boys: Determining the clinical relevance of this strategy. Exp Ther Med. 14:3327–3328. 2017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

15 

Mammas IN, Theodoridou M, Koutsaftiki C, Bertsias G, Sourvinos G and Spandidos DA: Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus in relation to Financial Crisis: The ‘Evaluation and Education of Greek Female Adolescents on Human Papillomaviruses' Prevention Strategies’ ELEFTHERIA Study. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 29:362–366. 2016. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

16 

Einstein MH, Schiller JT, Viscidi RP, Strickler HD, Coursaget P, Tan T, Halsey N and Jenkins D: Clinician's guide to human papillomavirus immunology: Knowns and unknowns. Lancet Infect Dis. 9:347–356. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

17 

Fisher H, Trotter CL, Audrey S, MacDonald-Wallis K and Hickman M: Inequalities in the uptake of human papillomavirus vaccination: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 42:896–908. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

18 

Kessels SJ, Marshall HS, Watson M, Braunack-Mayer AJ, Reuzel R and Tooher RL: Factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake in teenage girls: A systematic review. Vaccine. 30:3546–3556. 2012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

19 

Mammas IN and Theodoridou M: Financial crisis and childhood immunization: When parents disagree. Acta Paediatr. 102:e145–e146. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

20 

Gottvall M, Stenhammar C and Grandahl M: Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: A qualitative study. BMJ Open. 7:e0142552017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

21 

Batista Ferrer H, Trotter CL, Hickman M and Audrey S: Barriers and facilitators to uptake of the school-based HPV vaccination programme in an ethnically diverse group of young women. J Public Health (Oxf). 38:569–577. 2016. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

22 

Niyibizi J, Zanré N, Mayrand MH and Trottier H: The association between adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal human papillomavirus infection: A systematic review protocol. Syst Rev. 6:532017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

23 

Mammas IN, Sourvinos G and Spandidos DA: Maternal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its possible relationship with neonatal prematurity. Br J Biomed Sci. 67:222–224. 2010. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

24 

Mammas IN and Spandidos DA: Fighting against human papillomavirus: The 25-year old contribution of the University of Crete School of Medicine. J BUON. 20:17–21. 2015.PubMed/NCBI

25 

Mammas IN, Sourvinos G and Spandidos DA: HPV infection and neonatal prematurity. Int J Mol Med. 42:S372018.

26 

Bonde U, Joergensen JS, Mogensen O and Lamont RF: The potential role of HPV vaccination in the prevention of infectious complications of pregnancy. Expert Rev Vaccines. 13:1307–1316. 2014. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

27 

Ambühl LM, Baandrup U, Dybkær K, Blaakær J, Uldbjerg N and Sørensen S: Human papillomavirus infection as a possible cause of spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2016:30860362016. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

28 

Mosbah A, Barakat R, Nabiel Y and Barakat G: High-risk and low-risk human papilloma virus in association to spontaneous preterm labor: A case-control study in a tertiary center, Egypt. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 31:720–725. 2018. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

29 

Zuo Z, Goel S and Carter JE: Association of cervical cytology and HPV DNA status during pregnancy with placental abnormalities and preterm birth. Am J Clin Pathol. 136:260–265. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

30 

Hong JN, Berggren EK, Campbell SL, Smith JS and Rahangdale L: Abnormal cervical cancer screening in pregnancy and preterm delivery. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 28:297–301. 2014. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

31 

Hagensee ME, Slavinsky J III, Gaffga CM, Suros J, Kissinger P and Martin DH: Seroprevalence of human papillomavirus type 16 in pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 94:653–658. 1999. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

32 

Cho G, Min KJ, Hong HR, Kim S, Hong JH, Lee JK, Oh MJ and Kim H: High-risk human papillomavirus infection is associated with premature rupture of membranes. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 13:1732013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

33 

Subramaniam A, Lees BF, Becker DA, Tang Y, Khan MJ and Edwards RK: Evaluation of human papillomavirus as a risk factor for preterm birth or pregnancy-related hypertension. Obstet Gynecol. 127:233–240. 2016. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

34 

Huang QT, Zhong M, Gao YF, Huang LP, Huang Q, Wang W, Wang ZJ and Yu YH: Can HPV vaccine have other health benefits more than cancer prevention? A systematic review of association between cervical HPV infection and preterm birth. J Clin Virol. 61:321–328. 2014. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

35 

Xiong YQ, Mo Y, Luo QM, Huo ST, He WQ and Chen Q: The risk of human papillomavirus infection for spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm birth, and pregnancy rate of assisted reproductive technologies: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 83:417–427. 2018. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

36 

Lawton B, Howe AS, Turner N, Filoche S, Slatter T, Devenish C and Hung NA: Association of prior HPV vaccination with reduced preterm birth: A population based study. Vaccine. 36:134–140. 2018. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

37 

Scheller NM, Pasternak B, Mølgaard-Nielsen D, Svanström H and Hviid A: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 376:1223–1233. 2017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

38 

Doukas SG: Laryngeal HPV infection in children: A review of management and treatment of Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis. Int J Mol Med. 42:S172018.

39 

Mammas IN, Sourvinos G and Spandidos DA: Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr. 168:267–273. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

40 

Sinal SH and Woods CR: Human papillomavirus infections of the genital and respiratory tracts in young children. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 16:306–316. 2005. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

41 

Donne AJ and Clarke R: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: An uncommon but potentially devastating effect of human papillomavirus in children. Int J STD AIDS. 21:381–385. 2010. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

42 

Silverberg MJ, Thorsen P, Lindeberg H, Grant LA and Shah KV: Condyloma in pregnancy is strongly predictive of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Obstet Gynecol. 101:645–652. 2003. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

43 

Ivancic R, Iqbal H, deSilva B, Pan Q and Matrka L: Current and future management of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 3:22–34. 2018. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

44 

Derkay CS, Volsky PG, Rosen CA, Pransky SM, McMurray JS, Chadha NK and Froehlich P: Current use of intralesional cidofovir for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Laryngoscope. 123:705–712. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

45 

Gerein V, Rastorguev E, Gerein J, Jecker P and Pfister H: Use of interferon-alpha in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: 20-year follow-up. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 114:463–471. 2005. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

46 

Rosen CA and Bryson PC: Indole-3-carbinol for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: Long-term results. J Voice. 18:248–253. 2004. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

47 

Sidell DR, Nassar M, Cotton RT, Zeitels SM and de Alarcon A: High-dose sublesional bevacizumab (avastin) for pediatric recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 123:214–221. 2014. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

48 

Limsukon A, Susanto I, Soo Hoo GW, Dubinett SM and Batra RK: Regression of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with celecoxib and erlotinib combination therapy. Chest. 136:924–926. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

49 

Young DL, Moore MM and Halstead LA: The use of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (gardasil) as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papilloma. J Voice. 29:223–229. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

50 

Bussu F, Sali M, Gallus R, Vellone VG, Zannoni GF, Autorino R, Dinapoli N, Santangelo R, Martucci R, Graziani C, et al: HPV infection in squamous cell carcinomas arising from different mucosal sites of the head and neck region. Is p16 immunohistochemistry a reliable surrogate marker? Br J Cancer. 108:1157–1162. 2013.PubMed/NCBI

51 

Almadori G, Cadoni G, Cattani P, Posteraro P, Scarano E, Ottaviani F, Paludetti G and Maurizi M: Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Eur J Cancer 32A. 783–788. 1996. View Article : Google Scholar

52 

Almadori G, Galli J, Cadoni G, Bussu F and Maurizi M: Human papillomavirus infection and cyclin D1 gene amplification in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: Biologic function and clinical significance. Head Neck. 24:597–604. 2002. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

53 

Mammas IN, Sourvinos G, Zaravinos A and Spandidos DA: Vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV): Epidemiological evidence of HPV in non-genital cancers. Pathol Oncol Res. 17:103–119. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

54 

Bouvard V, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Freeman C, Galichet L, et al WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group, : A review of human carcinogens - Part B: Biological agents. Lancet Oncol. 10:321–322. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

55 

Stransky N, Egloff AM, Tward AD, Kostic AD, Cibulskis K, Sivachenko A, Kryukov GV, Lawrence MS, Sougnez C, McKenna A, et al: The mutational landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Science. 333:1157–1160. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

56 

Zaravinos A, Mammas IN, Sourvinos G and Spandidos DA: Molecular detection methods of human papillomavirus (HPV). Int J Biol Markers. 24:215–222. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

57 

Zaravinos A: An updated overview of HPV-associated head and neck carcinomas. Oncotarget. 5:3956–3969. 2014. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

58 

Baruah P, Lee M, Odutoye T, Williamson P, Hyde N, Kaski JC and Dumitriu IE: Decreased levels of alternative co-stimulatory receptors OX40 and 4-1BB characterise T cells from head and neck cancer patients. Immunobiology. 217:669–675. 2012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

59 

Hoffmann TK, Dworacki G, Tsukihiro T, Meidenbauer N, Gooding W, Johnson JT and Whiteside TL: Spontaneous apoptosis of circulating T lymphocytes in patients with head and neck cancer and its clinical importance. Clin Cancer Res. 8:2553–2562. 2002.PubMed/NCBI

60 

Reichert TE, Scheuer C, Day R, Wagner W and Whiteside TL: The number of intratumoral dendritic cells and zeta-chain expression in T cells as prognostic and survival biomarkers in patients with oral carcinoma. Cancer. 91:2136–2147. 2001. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

61 

Badoual C, Hans S, Merillon N, Van Ryswick C, Ravel P, Benhamouda N, Levionnois E, Nizard M, Si-Mohamed A, Besnier N, et al: PD-1-expressing tumor-infiltrating T cells are a favorable prognostic biomarker in HPV-associated head and neck cancer. Cancer Res. 73:128–138. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

62 

Kenter GG, Welters MJ, Valentijn AR, Lowik MJ, Berends-van der Meer DM, Vloon AP, Essahsah F, Fathers LM, Offringa R, Drijfhout JW, et al: Vaccination against HPV-16 oncoproteins for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. N Engl J Med. 361:1838–1847. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

63 

Voskens CJ, Sewell D, Hertzano R, DeSanto J, Rollins S, Lee M, Taylor R, Wolf J, Suntharalingam M, Gastman B, et al: Induction of MAGE-A3 and HPV-16 immunity by Trojan vaccines in patients with head and neck carcinoma. Head Neck. 34:1734–1746. 2012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

64 

Wallecha A, French C, Petit R, Singh R, Amin A and Rothman J: Lm-LLO-based immunotherapies and HPV-associated disease. J Oncol. 2012:5428512012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

65 

Maciag PC, Radulovic S and Rothman J: The first clinical use of a live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes vaccine: A Phase I safety study of Lm-LLO-E7 in patients with advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Vaccine. 27:3975–3983. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

66 

Forastiere AA: Chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Surg Oncol. 97:701–707. 2008. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

67 

Leclerc M, Maingon P, Hamoir M, Dalban C, Calais G, Nuyts S, Serre A and Grégoire V: A dose escalation study with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in T2N0, T2N1, T3N0 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach. Radiother Oncol. 106:333–340. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

68 

Fakhry C, Westra WH, Li S, Cmelak A, Ridge JA, Pinto H, Forastiere A and Gillison ML: Improved survival of patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a prospective clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 100:261–269. 2008. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

69 

Psyrri A, Licitra L, Lacombe D, Schuuring E, Budach W, Ozsahin M, Knecht R, Vermorken JB and Langendijk JA: Strategies to promote translational research within the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Head and Neck Cancer Group: A report from the Translational Research Subcommittee. Ann Oncol. 21:1952–1960. 2010. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

70 

Zaravinos A: HPV as an emerging risk factor in head and neck carcinomas: An additional vaccination target? Int J Mol Med. 42:S402018.

71 

Achtsidis V and Kozanidou E: The involvement of human papilloma virus (HPV) in eye's disorders in neonates and children: An update. Int J Mol Med. 42:S172018.

72 

Kaliki S, Arepalli S, Shields CL, Klein K, Sun H, Hysenj E, Lally SE and Shields JA: Conjunctival papilloma: Features and outcomes based on age at initial examination. JAMA Ophthalmol. 131:585–593. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

73 

Sjö NC, von Buchwald C, Cassonnet P, Norrild B, Prause JU, Vinding T and Heegaard S: Human papillomavirus in normal conjunctival tissue and in conjunctival papilloma: Types and frequencies in a large series. Br J Ophthalmol. 91:1014–1015. 2007. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

74 

Minchiotti S, Masucci L, Serapiao Dos Santos M, Perrella E, Graffeo R, Lambiase A and Bonini S: Conjunctival papilloma and human papillomavirus: Identification of HPV types by PCR. Eur J Ophthalmol. 16:473–477. 2006. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

75 

D Kalogeropoulos C and M Moschos M: Advances in diagnosis and treatment of HPV ocular surface infections. Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol. 4:31–35. 2015.PubMed/NCBI

76 

Chalkia AK, Spandidos DA and Detorakis ET: Viral involvement in the pathogenesis and clinical features of ophthalmic pterygium (Review). Int J Mol Med. 32:539–543. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

77 

Di Girolamo N: Association of human papilloma virus with pterygia and ocular-surface squamous neoplasia. Eye (Lond). 26:202–211. 2012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

Related Articles

Journal Cover

June 2019
Volume 17 Issue 6

Print ISSN: 1792-0981
Online ISSN:1792-1015

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
APA
Mammas, I.N., Dalianis, T., Doukas, S.G., Zaravinos, A., Achtsidis, V., Thiagarajan, P. ... Spandidos, D. . (2019). Paediatric virology and human papillomaviruses: An update. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 17, 4337-4343. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.7516
MLA
Mammas, I. N., Dalianis, T., Doukas, S. G., Zaravinos, A., Achtsidis, V., Thiagarajan, P., Theodoridou, M., Spandidos, D. ."Paediatric virology and human papillomaviruses: An update". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 17.6 (2019): 4337-4343.
Chicago
Mammas, I. N., Dalianis, T., Doukas, S. G., Zaravinos, A., Achtsidis, V., Thiagarajan, P., Theodoridou, M., Spandidos, D. ."Paediatric virology and human papillomaviruses: An update". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 17, no. 6 (2019): 4337-4343. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.7516