Open Access

Hypoxia‑inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Yang Guo
    • Zunqiang Xiao
    • Liu Yang
    • Yuling Gao
    • Qiaojuan Zhu
    • Linjun Hu
    • Dongsheng Huang
    • Qiuran Xu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 1, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7397
  • Pages: 3-15
  • Copyright: © Guo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Maintenance of an appropriate oxygen concentration is essential for the function of the liver. However, in many pathological conditions, and particularly in the tumor microenvironment, cells and tissues are frequently in a hypoxic state. In the presence of hypoxia, the cells adapt to the low oxygen levels through the hypoxia‑inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Overgrowth of tumor cells restricts the diffusion of oxygen in tumors, leading to insufficient blood supply and the creation of a hypoxic microenvironment, and, as a consequence, activation of the expression of HIFs. HIFs possess a wide range of target genes, which function to control a variety of signaling pathways; thus, HIFs modulate cellular metabolism, immune escape, angiogenesis, metastasis, extracellular matrix remodeling, cancer stem cells and other properties of the tumor. Given their crucial role in the occurrence and development of tumors, HIFs are expected to become new targets of precise treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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January 2020
Volume 43 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1021-335X
Online ISSN:1791-2431

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APA
Guo, Y., Xiao, Z., Yang, L., Gao, Y., Zhu, Q., Hu, L. ... Xu, Q. (2020). Hypoxia‑inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (Review). Oncology Reports, 43, 3-15. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7397
MLA
Guo, Y., Xiao, Z., Yang, L., Gao, Y., Zhu, Q., Hu, L., Huang, D., Xu, Q."Hypoxia‑inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (Review)". Oncology Reports 43.1 (2020): 3-15.
Chicago
Guo, Y., Xiao, Z., Yang, L., Gao, Y., Zhu, Q., Hu, L., Huang, D., Xu, Q."Hypoxia‑inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (Review)". Oncology Reports 43, no. 1 (2020): 3-15. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7397