Impact of antiretroviral drugs on PD‑L1 expression and copy number gains with clinical outcomes in HIV‑positive and ‑negative locally advanced cervical cancers
- Kongsak Loharamtaweethong
- Songkhun Vinyuvat
- Jidapa Thammasiri
- Sakchai Chitpakdee
- Chalermpak Supakatitham
- Napaporn Puripat
Published online on: October 4, 2019
Copyright: © Loharamtaweethong et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
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Cervical cancer has become a leading cause of death in both HIV‑infected and uninfected women. Previous studies have revealed that antiretroviral therapy (ART) possesses anti‑human papillomavirus (HPV) and antitumour properties, potentially serving as an anticancer agent and improving functional immunity in HIV‑positive individuals. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the association between ART and the clinical outcome of patients with pre‑existing invasive cervical cancer. The current study analysed 48 HIV‑positive and 123 HIV‑negative patients with locally advanced stage IB2‑IVA cervical cancer between December 2008 and December 2016. Tumours were categorized based on programmed cell death‑ligand 1 (PD‑L1) immunoreactivity and copy number alterations in the PD‑L1 gene, as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results revealed that ART‑treated patients exhibited a lower prevalence of PD‑L1 immunopositivity, PD‑L1 amplification and polysomy compared with patients that did not receive ART and those that were HIV‑negative. Furthermore, ART‑treated patients with PD‑L1 immunonegativity exhibited an improved recurrence‑free survival (RFS) compared with patients that did not receive ART and HIV‑negative individuals with PD‑L1 immunopositivity (P=0.041 vs. P=0.030). Additionally, ART‑exposed patients with PD‑L1 disomy demonstrated improved locoregional recurrence‑free survival (LRR) when compared with HIV‑negative patients with PD‑L1 amplification and polysomy (P=0.039 vs. P=0.007), RFS (P<0.001 vs. P=0.006) and cancer‑specific survival (CSS) (P=0.021 vs. P=0.025). ART‑exposed patients with PD‑L1 disomy also exhibited improved RFS (P<0.001) and CSS (P<0.001) compared with HIV‑negative patients with PD‑L1 amplification. Improved LRRs were demonstrated in ART‑exposed patients with PD‑L1 disomy (P=0.028) compared with non‑HIV patients with polysomy. Following multivariate analysis, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stage and PD‑L1 amplification were determined to be predictors of poor a RFS [hazard ratio (HR), 2.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.37‑4.30; P=0.002 vs. HR, 7.03; 95% CI, 2.79‑17.74; P<0.001) and CSS (HR, 11.47; 95% CI, 4.70‑27.99; P<0.001 vs. HR, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.64‑9.98; P=0.002). However, only PD‑L1 polysomy was determined to be a predictor of poor LRR (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.11‑5.63; P=0.027). HIV status was not associated with poor outcomes, as determined using Cox models. The results of the current study indicated that ART may be used for the treatment of cervical cancer in both HIV‑infected and uninfected patients. However, additional research is required to further elucidate these results.