High ambient radiofrequency radiation in Stockholm city, Sweden
- Michael Carlberg
- Lena Hedendahl
- Tarmo Koppel
- Lennart Hardell
Affiliations: Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, SE 701 82 Örebro, Sweden, The Environment and Cancer Research Foundation, SE 702 17 Örebro, Sweden, Department of Labour Environment and Safety, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn 19086, Estonia
- Published online on: December 3, 2018 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.9789
Copyright: © Carlberg
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
terms of Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
This article is mentioned in:
We measured the radiofrequency (RF) radiation at central parts in Stockholm, Sweden in March and April 2017. The same measurement round tour was used each time. We used EME Spy 200 for the measurements as in our previous studies in Stockholm. The results were based on 11,482 entries, corresponding to more than 12 h measurements. The total mean level was 5,494 µW/m2 (median 3,346; range 36.6‑205,155). The major contributions were down links from LTE 800 (4G), GSM + UMTS 900 (3G), GSM 1800 (2G), UMTS 2100 (3G) and LTE 2600 (4G). Regarding different places, the highest RF radiation was measured at the Hay Market with a mean level of 10,728 µW/m2 (median 8,578; range 335‑68,815). This is a square used for shopping, and both retailers and visitors may spend considerable time at this place. Also, the Sergel Plaza had high radiation with a mean of 7,768 µW/m2. All measurements exceeded the target level of 30‑60 µW/m2 based on non‑thermal (no heating) effects, according to the BioInitiative Report. Based on short‑term thermal effects, The International Commission on Non‑Ionizing Radiation Protection established guideline 2 of 10 W/m2 (2,000,000‑10,000,000 µW/m2) depending on frequency in 1998, and has not changed it despite solid evidence of non‑thermal biological effects at substantially lower exposure levels. These environmental RF radiation levels are expected to increase with the introduction of 5G for wireless communication.