Effects of connective tissue growth factor on prostate cancer bone metastasis and osteoblast differentiation
- Shuangli Zhang
- Baolin Li
- Wei Tang
- Linying Ni
- Huili Ma
- Ming Lu
- Qinggang Meng
Published online on: June 13, 2018
Copyright: © Zhang et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
Previous studies have demonstrated that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is expressed at increased levels in prostate cancer bone metastasis mouse models and patients with prostate cancer which metastasizes to the bone; however, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unknown. The present study investigated the function of CTGF in osteoblast differentiation and its effect on prostate cancer bone metastasis by analyzing CTGF gene expression and transcription at different levels of invasion, metastasis of prostate cancer cells, and the influence of CTGF on proliferation and xenotransplantation. A mouse model demonstrating bone metastasis was used to investigate the function(s) of CTGF in bone metastasis and osteoblast differentiation. Results demonstrated that CTGF expression was increased in association with high bone metastasis in prostate cancer cells, and its expression was significantly decreased in whole cell lysates. CTGF expression in prostate cancer cells with high levels of bone metastasis was increased 1.9‑fold compared with prostate cancer cells with low levels of bone metastasis. The expression of CTGF in mesenchymal cells was markedly increased compared with epithelial cells. Results indicated that the increased expression of CTGF does not affect the proliferation of tumor cells and possesses no influence on tumor volume. Control and CTGF plasmids were transfected into RM1 cells and led to 4 and 17% bone lesions, respectively. Increased expression of CTGF significantly enlarged the tumor area in the bone metastatic position compared with the control. Positive areas of alkaline phosphatase were significantly decreased as the concentration of CTGF increased. The results of the present study demonstrated that CTGF promotes prostate carcinoma to metastasize in the bone by dysregulating osteoblast differentiation.