Open Access

The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and its role in the occurrence and development of HCC (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Lei Li
    • Guo‑Dong Zhao
    • Zhe Shi
    • Li‑Li Qi
    • Li‑Yuan Zhou
    • Ze‑Xian Fu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: September 9, 2016     https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2016.5110
  • Pages: 3045-3050
  • Copyright: © Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common tumor worldwide and has a very poor prognosis. Its occurrence has been on the increase in recent years. Surgical resection and liver transplantation are the primary methods of treatment for HCC patients, but can only be applied to 15% of patients. The median survival time of unresectable or metastasizing HCC patients is only a few months. Existing systemic treatment methods are not effective for advanced HCC patients and a new method of treatment is needed for these patients. It has been established that the HCC occurs in multiple stages, however, the pathogenesis at a molecular level is not clear and many key factors are yet to be determined. In the past 30 years, it has become evident that the Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway plays a significant role in the occurrence and development of HCC. This review focused on the association between the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and HCC.
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November 2016
Volume 12 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1792-1074
Online ISSN:1792-1082

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APA
Li, L., Zhao, G., Shi, Z., Qi, L., Zhou, L., & Fu, Z. (2016). The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and its role in the occurrence and development of HCC (Review). Oncology Letters, 12, 3045-3050. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2016.5110
MLA
Li, L., Zhao, G., Shi, Z., Qi, L., Zhou, L., Fu, Z."The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and its role in the occurrence and development of HCC (Review)". Oncology Letters 12.5 (2016): 3045-3050.
Chicago
Li, L., Zhao, G., Shi, Z., Qi, L., Zhou, L., Fu, Z."The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and its role in the occurrence and development of HCC (Review)". Oncology Letters 12, no. 5 (2016): 3045-3050. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2016.5110