Open Access

KRAS and BRAF mutations induce anoikis resistance and characteristic 3D phenotypes in Caco‑2 cells

  • Authors:
    • Madhura Patankar
    • Sinikka Eskelinen
    • Anne Tuomisto
    • Markus J. Mäkinen
    • Tuomo J. Karttunen
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: September 20, 2019     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10693
  • Pages: 4634-4644
  • Copyright : © Patankar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY 4.0].

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Abstract

In a number of types of cancer, anoikis, a form of apoptosis induced by loss of extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, is disturbed. Anoikis resistance is essential in the formation of metastases. A recent study identified carcinoma cell subpopulations surviving without ECM contact in pathological specimens of colorectal cancer. The occurrence of these subpopulations indicated anoikis resistance. In the present study, it is demonstrated that KRAS and BRAF mutations induce anoikis resistance in colon cancer (Caco‑2) cells. In 3D cultures, Caco‑2 cells transfected with mutated KRAS or BRAF formed multicellular structures analogous to anoikis‑resistant subpopulations in actual carcinomas, and serve as an in vitro model for anoikis resistance. Caco‑2 cell lines were constructed, with KRAS or BRAF mutations, using retroviral delivery. The current study investigated anoikis resistance using an Annexin V apoptosis test from suspension cultures. 3D in vitro cultures, which were generated in collagen‑matrigel mixtures, were assessed using confocal microscopy. 3D cultures embedded in paraffin were analyzed using conventional histopathology. In suspension cultures, Caco‑2 cells with KRAS or BRAF mutations indicated a significantly lower proportion of Annexin positivity than the native Caco‑2 cells, indicating that these mutations induce anoikis resistance in Caco‑2 cells. 3D cultures displayed native Caco‑2 cells forming polarized cysts with a single layer thick epithelium, whereas Caco‑2 cells with KRAS or BRAF mutations formed partially filled cystic structures or solid round structures where only the outermost layer was in contact with the ECM. Additionally, KRAS mutations induced reversed polarity to Caco‑2 cells along with the emergence of solid growth. The present study demonstrated that KRAS and BRAF mutations induce anoikis resistance in Caco‑2 colorectal cancer cells. The growth patterns generated from the KRAS and BRAF mutated cells in 3D cultures revealed a resemblance to the putative anoikis‑resistant subpopulations in actual carcinomas, including micropapillary structures and solid tumor cell islands. Additionally, KRAS mutation induced the emergence of inverted polarity. In conclusion, 3D cultures with modified Caco‑2 cells serve as a valid in vitro model for anoikis resistance and inverted polarity.

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November 2019
Volume 20 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1791-2997
Online ISSN:1791-3004

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APA
Patankar, M., Eskelinen, S., Tuomisto, A., Mäkinen, M.J., & Karttunen, T.J. (2019). KRAS and BRAF mutations induce anoikis resistance and characteristic 3D phenotypes in Caco‑2 cells. Molecular Medicine Reports, 20, 4634-4644. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10693
MLA
Patankar, M., Eskelinen, S., Tuomisto, A., Mäkinen, M. J., Karttunen, T. J."KRAS and BRAF mutations induce anoikis resistance and characteristic 3D phenotypes in Caco‑2 cells". Molecular Medicine Reports 20.5 (2019): 4634-4644.
Chicago
Patankar, M., Eskelinen, S., Tuomisto, A., Mäkinen, M. J., Karttunen, T. J."KRAS and BRAF mutations induce anoikis resistance and characteristic 3D phenotypes in Caco‑2 cells". Molecular Medicine Reports 20, no. 5 (2019): 4634-4644. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10693