Primary intracranial neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome: A rare and complicated case report and literature review

  • Authors:
    • Hailong Liu
    • Mingshan Zhang
    • Xuan Wang
    • Yanming Qu
    • Hongwei Zhang
    • Chunjiang Yu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: May 11, 2016     https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2016.904
  • Pages: 99-102
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Abstract

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome are frequent in adult patients. However, primary intracranial NETs, exhibiting immunonegativity for ACTH, high serum ACTH level and treated with anterior skull base reconstruction, are rare and complicated. We herein present a case of a primary intracranial NET immunonegative for ACTH, resulting in ectopic ACTH syndrome. A 40‑year‑old woman presented with intermittent rhinorrhea, rapid weight gain, polydipsia, polyuria, hypertension, dimness, bilateral exophthalmus, diminution of vision in the left eye and pigmentation of the skin of the face and trunk. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a sizeable enhancing tumor in the anterior cranial fossa, which infiltrated the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses bilaterally, the left maxillary sinus and the nasal cavity. Abdominal CT scans revealed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. The biochemical findings included hypokalemia and high glucose, cortisol, plasma ACTH, 24‑h urinary free cortisol and testosterone levels. The neoplasm was exposed through a right frontal craniotomy, while anterior skull base reconstruction was performed during surgery. The intracranial surgery achieved gross removal of the tumor; however, part of the tumor remained in the nasal cavity. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of a low‑grade small‑cell NET, exhibiting immunonegativity for ACTH. A postoperative abdominal CT scan demonstrated bilateral regression of the adrenal gland hyperplasia and the serum ACTH level returned to normal after 16 days. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of primary intracranial NETs, immunohistochemically negative for ACTH, resulting in ectopic ACTH syndrome.
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July 2016
Volume 5 Issue 1

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APA
Liu, H., Zhang, M., Wang, X., Qu, Y., Zhang, H., & Yu, C. (2016). Primary intracranial neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome: A rare and complicated case report and literature review. Molecular and Clinical Oncology, 5, 99-102. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2016.904
MLA
Liu, H., Zhang, M., Wang, X., Qu, Y., Zhang, H., Yu, C."Primary intracranial neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome: A rare and complicated case report and literature review". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 5.1 (2016): 99-102.
Chicago
Liu, H., Zhang, M., Wang, X., Qu, Y., Zhang, H., Yu, C."Primary intracranial neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome: A rare and complicated case report and literature review". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 5, no. 1 (2016): 99-102. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2016.904