The systemic inflammatory response as a prognostic factor for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis

  • Authors:
    • Hajime Aino
    • Shuji Sumie
    • Takashi Niizeki
    • Ryoko Kuromatsu
    • Nobuyoshi Tajiri
    • Masahito Nakano
    • Manabu Satani
    • Shusuke Okamura
    • Shigeo Shimose
    • Kensuke Miyahara
    • Takuji Torimura
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 28, 2016     https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2016.879
  • Pages: 83-88
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Abstract

Several indices have been proposed to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response (SIR), which has been reported to be a useful prognostic factor in various types of cancer. We investigated the usefulness of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), neutrophil‑to‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet‑to‑lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as prognostic factors in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extrahepatic metastasis (stage IVB). Between April, 1997 and March, 2013, a total of 434 HCC patients who developed extrahepatic metastasis were enrolled in the present study. The GPS was defined on the basis of pretreatment C‑reactive protein (CRP) and albumin (Alb) levels, and the subjects were grouped according to GPS 0‑2. The NLR was calculated as the neutrophil count̸lymphocyte count, and the PLR was calculated as the platelet count̸lymphocyte count. A comparative examination was performed using a survival analysis with approximate median values to determine the cut‑off value for both ratios. The median survival time (MST) of the 434 patients overall was 7.3 months, with cumulative survival rates of 31.8, 14.5 and 7.7% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. The patient backround was as follows: The male:female ratio was 363:71, with a median age of 67.0 years (range, 15.0‑92.0 years). Hepatitis B virus patients:hepatitis C virus patients:non-B, non‑C hepatitis patients = 75:303:56. Child‑Pugh class A:B:C = 218:153:63. As regards T stage, ≤T2:T3:T4 = 60:190:181. The median white blood cell count was 4,650̸l (range, 1,400‑20,500̸l); the platelet count was 11.1x104̸µl (range, 3.1x104‑45.5x104̸µl); the aspartate aminotransferase level was 40.0 U̸l (range, 7.0‑338.0 U̸l) and the alanine aminotransferase level 64.5 U̸l (range, 16.0‑407.0 U̸l); the α‑fetoprotein level was 622.1 ng̸ml (range, 1.5‑3,311,794.0 ng̸ml); and the des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin level was 1,285.0 mAU̸ml (range, 8.0‑>75,000 mAU̸ml). The principal sites of metastasis included the lungs (53.9%), bone (38.9%), lymph nodes (21.4%) and adrenal glands (10.1%). The survival analysis revealed that hepatic functional reserve [Child‑Pugh class B+C; hazard ratio (HR)=2.055; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.592‑2.651, P<0.001], T stage (T3; HR=2.359; 95% CI: 1.648‑3.376, P<0.001), AFP (≥200 ng̸ml; HR=1.416; 95% CI: 1.125‑1.783, P=0.003), NLR (≥3; HR=1.569; 95% CI: 1.253‑1.963, P<0.001) and GPS (1+2; HR=1.410; 95% CI: 1.060‑1.874, P=0.018) were independent risk factors. A total of 136 patients were included in the GPS 0 group, 169 patients in the GPS 1 group and 129 patients in the GPS 2 group. The low together with the high NLR groups comprised 217 patients. The MST was 480 days in the GPS 0 group, 154 days in the GPS 1 and 2 groups, 115 days in the high NLR group and 321 days in the low NLR group; a significant difference in survival was observed for the GPS and NLR groups. Therefore, we consider GPS and NLR to be useful prognostic factors in patients with stage IVB HCC.
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July 2016
Volume 5 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 2049-9450
Online ISSN:2049-9469

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APA
Aino, H., Sumie, S., Niizeki, T., Kuromatsu, R., Tajiri, N., Nakano, M. ... Torimura, T. (2016). The systemic inflammatory response as a prognostic factor for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis. Molecular and Clinical Oncology, 5, 83-88. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2016.879
MLA
Aino, H., Sumie, S., Niizeki, T., Kuromatsu, R., Tajiri, N., Nakano, M., Satani, M., Okamura, S., Shimose, S., Miyahara, K., Torimura, T."The systemic inflammatory response as a prognostic factor for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 5.1 (2016): 83-88.
Chicago
Aino, H., Sumie, S., Niizeki, T., Kuromatsu, R., Tajiri, N., Nakano, M., Satani, M., Okamura, S., Shimose, S., Miyahara, K., Torimura, T."The systemic inflammatory response as a prognostic factor for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 5, no. 1 (2016): 83-88. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2016.879