Open Access

Extracranial metastasis of gliobastoma: Three illustrative cases and current review of the molecular pathology and management strategies

  • Authors:
    • Abhishek Ray
    • Sunil Manjila
    • Alia M. Hdeib
    • Archana Radhakrishnan
    • Charles J. Nock
    • Mark L. Cohen
    • Andrew E. Sloan
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: January 23, 2015     https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2015.494
  • Pages: 479-486
  • Copyright: © Ray et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and the most malignant primary brain tumor in adults, accounting for ~12‑15% of all intracranial neoplasms. Despite advances in surgical, medical and radiation therapies, the mortality of GBM remains high, with a median survival ranging between 40 and 70 weeks. Similar to other primary brain tumors, the extracranial metastasis of GBM is extremely rare, occurring in <2% of patients. To demonstrate the clinical characteristics of this rare tumor, we herein present three cases of extracranial GBM metastasis: one to the lungs, which represents the longest reported survival of lung metastases from GBM to date; the second to the soft tissue of the posterior neck; and the third to the lumbar intradural space. Unlike tumors elsewhere, there are unique barriers in the brain that prevent the hematogenous and lymphatic spread of intracranial tumors, such as the dura mater and the thickened basement membrane of the blood vessels. In addition, central nervous system tumor cells lack extracellular matrix proteins required to invade surrounding connective tissue, a prerequisite for tumor dissemination. in this study, we aimed to investigate the different possible mechanisms underlying the extracranial metastasis of GBM and determine the biomolecular and genetic characteristics differentiating GBMs that metastasize from those that do not. We also reviewed the role of systemic chemotherapy and bevacizumab in the treatment of disseminated GBMs. Early identification and differentiation of these tumors may enable patients to benefit from surgical resection, radiation and combination chemotherapy prior to developing other comorbidities from metastatic disease, which may translate into prolonged survival with an acceptable quality of life.
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May 2015
Volume 3 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 2049-9450
Online ISSN:2049-9469

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APA
Ray, A., Manjila, S., Hdeib, A.M., Radhakrishnan, A., Nock, C.J., Cohen, M.L., & Sloan, A.E. (2015). Extracranial metastasis of gliobastoma: Three illustrative cases and current review of the molecular pathology and management strategies. Molecular and Clinical Oncology, 3, 479-486. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2015.494
MLA
Ray, A., Manjila, S., Hdeib, A. M., Radhakrishnan, A., Nock, C. J., Cohen, M. L., Sloan, A. E."Extracranial metastasis of gliobastoma: Three illustrative cases and current review of the molecular pathology and management strategies". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 3.3 (2015): 479-486.
Chicago
Ray, A., Manjila, S., Hdeib, A. M., Radhakrishnan, A., Nock, C. J., Cohen, M. L., Sloan, A. E."Extracranial metastasis of gliobastoma: Three illustrative cases and current review of the molecular pathology and management strategies". Molecular and Clinical Oncology 3, no. 3 (2015): 479-486. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2015.494