Effect of photodynamic treatment of human endothelial cells on cell volume and cell viability
- A Leunig
- F Staub
- N Plesnila
- J Peters
- J Feyh
- A Goetz
Affiliations: UNIV MUNICH,KLINIKUM GROSSHADERN,INST SURG RES,D-81366 MUNICH,GERMANY. UNIV MUNICH,KLINIKUM GROSSHADERN,INST ANESTHESIOL,D-81366 MUNICH,GERMANY.
- Published online on: June 1, 1996 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.8.6.1217
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has yielded promising results in the treatment of malignant tumors. However, the mechanisms leading to tumor destruction during PDT are still not completely understood. In addition to effects on the microcirculation, damage to cellular structures has been observed following exposure of cells to PDT. A phenomenon preceding these events might possibly be cell swelling. We therefore studied the influence of treatment with Photofrin(R) (PF) and laser light on volume changes and cell viability of endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical cord veins (HUVEC) by an adaption of the method of Maruyama. After subcultivation the cells were harvested and transferred as a cell suspension into a specially designed incubation chamber. Cells received either PF in concentrations of 1.5 or 3.0 mu g/ml and laser illumination 60 min post incubation (630 nm; 40 mW/cm(2), 4 Joule), PF alone, or laser treatment only. Following start of PF incubation and after phototreatment cell samples were taken for volume measurements using flow cytometry, and for studies of cellular morphology using scanning electron microscopy. Simultaneously, cell viability was monitored by the trypan blue exclusion test and the colorimetric MTT assay. Both control groups, HUVEC receiving PF or laser treatment alone, revealed constant cell volumes and cell viability during the entire course of the experiment. After PDT (60 min post-incubation) with 1.5 and 3.0 mu g PF/ml cell volume of HUVEC was increased at 15 min to 122%+/-6% and 140%+/-10% of baseline (100%), at 60 min to 152%+/-9% and 134%+/-18%, respectively (p<0.01). The number of viable cells was significantly reduced of samples treated with 1.5 and 3.0 mu g PF/ml at 15 min after PDT to 81%+/-3% and 76%+/-10% of baseline (100%), at 60 min after PDT to 32%+/-14% and 20%+/-15%, respectively (p<0.01). Scanning electron microscopy of cells exposed to PDT following 60 min incubation with Photofrin (3.0 mu g/ml) revealed significant cell damage. At the highest PF concentration HUVEC showed loss of microvilli and formation of blebs on the cellular surface. Our study demonstrates that PDT induces a significant increase in endothelial cell volume and a loss of cell viability. We suggest that swelling and damage of endothelial cells following PDT is a primary event finally contributing to cessation of blood flow and subsequent necrosis of tumors.