Activation of p38 MAPK and/or JNK contributes to increased levels of VEGF secretion in human malignant glioma cells

  • Authors:
    • Yoshikazu Yoshino
    • Masaru Aoyagi
    • Masashi Tamaki
    • Lian Duan
    • Takashi Morimoto
    • Kikuo Ohno
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: October 1, 2006     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.29.4.981
  • Pages: 981-987
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Abstract

Malignant gliomas are typically angiogenic and secrete high levels of VEGF. Hypoxia has been identified as an important regulator of VEGF. However, malignant gliomas express high levels of VEGF in both hypoxic perinecrotic and vital tumor areas. In this study, we examined intracellular signaling pathways involved in the secretion of VEGF in glioma cells under normoxic conditions. Human malignant glioma cell lines, T98G, U373MG, U87MG, and A172, and human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL) were cultured both with and without IL-1β under normoxic conditions. VEGF, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α were measured with ELISA. VEGF mRNA levels were estimated by RT-PCR. Inhibitors of COX-2, MAPK, and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), and blocking antibodies to TGF-β II and TNF-α, or IL-1 receptor antagonist, were used to examine their effects on VEGF secretion. Phosphorylation of MAPK was examined by immunoblotting. The basal levels of VEGF secretion were significantly higher in U87MG, U373MG, and T98G, than HFL. IL-1β significantly stimulated VEGF secretion in these glioma cells. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK and/or JNK significantly suppressed VEGF secretion both in the presence and absence of IL-1β, while inhibitors of COX-2, ERK1/2, and PI3-K did not. Constitutive phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK was observed in these glioma cells. The levels of IL-1β in U87MG were significantly higher than in other glioma cell lines, and IL-1 receptor antagonist suppressed basal secretion of VEGF from U87MG. In conclusion, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways play an important role in VEGF secretion from malignant glioma cells under normoxic conditions, possibly contributing to VEGF-induced angiogenesis in malignant gliomas at vital tumor areas where there is no hypoxia.

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October 2006
Volume 29 Issue 4

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Yoshino, Y., Aoyagi, M., Tamaki, M., Duan, L., Morimoto, T., & Ohno, K. (2006). Activation of p38 MAPK and/or JNK contributes to increased levels of VEGF secretion in human malignant glioma cells. International Journal of Oncology, 29, 981-987. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.29.4.981
MLA
Yoshino, Y., Aoyagi, M., Tamaki, M., Duan, L., Morimoto, T., Ohno, K."Activation of p38 MAPK and/or JNK contributes to increased levels of VEGF secretion in human malignant glioma cells". International Journal of Oncology 29.4 (2006): 981-987.
Chicago
Yoshino, Y., Aoyagi, M., Tamaki, M., Duan, L., Morimoto, T., Ohno, K."Activation of p38 MAPK and/or JNK contributes to increased levels of VEGF secretion in human malignant glioma cells". International Journal of Oncology 29, no. 4 (2006): 981-987. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.29.4.981