Expression of vitamin D3 receptor and retinoid receptors in human breast cancer: identification of potential heterodimeric receptors.
- I Conde
- R Paniagua
- B Fraile
- A Ruiz
- M I Arenas
Affiliations: Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.
- Published online on: October 1, 2004 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.25.4.1183
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Vitamin D3 (VD) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) have been postulated as a novel treatment option for breast carcinoma. Since the combined effects of retinoids and VD derivatives are attributed to heterodimeric interactions between members of the nuclear receptor family, the expression patterns of the heterodimers formed by vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) and the retinoid receptors RARs (RAR-alpha, RAR-beta and RAR-gamma) and RXRs (RXR-alpha, RXR-beta and RXR-gamma) have been studied by immunohistochemistry in benign and malignant breast tissues. Present results revealed that immunoexpressions to all receptor types studied were higher in both in situ and infiltrative carcinomas than in benign breast diseases. In a variable number of cases of infiltrative carcinoma, immunostaining appeared in the nucleus, whereas in the other two disorders immunostaining was only cytoplasmic. The correlation established between VDR and the different isoforms of retinoid receptors revealed that VDR seems to select mainly RAR-alpha to form heterodimers and to exert their properties as transcription factor. The results of this study suggest that this heterodimer plays a critical role in cancer malignancy, and its presence indicates those patient groups presenting a better response to adjuvant therapies based on the combination of vitamin D and ATRA.