The balance between MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1/-2 is shifted towards MMP in renal cell carcinomas and can be further disturbed by hydrogen peroxide

  • Authors:
    • Bernhard Hemmerlein
    • Ulrike Johanns
    • Julia Halbfass
    • Tobias Böttcher
    • Markus Heuser
    • Heinz-Joachim Radzun
    • Paul Thelen
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: May 1, 2004     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.24.5.1069
  • Pages: 1069-1076
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Abstract

In malignant tumors the balance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) is disturbed. Radical oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide potentially influence this balance. Therefore, we analyzed the balance of MMP and TIMP in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) specimens and cell lines. In RCC specimens MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were immunohistochemically detected. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) as a potential source of ROS were characterized with an anti-CD68 antibody. Three RCC cell lines were treated with sublethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to simulate the effects of radical oxygen species. MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression was measured by zymography. mRNA expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tumor cell-derived reactive oxygen species were measured by FACS analysis and dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidation. In RCCs the MMP and TIMP expression profile was variable. The balance between MMP and TIMP was shifted towards MMP in comparison to matched normal controls. TAM were localized in a close vicinity to MMP expresssing tumor cells. As in RCC specimens, the expression of MMP and TIMP in the analyzed RCC cell lines varied. Hydrogen peroxide induced MMP-2 and -9 mRNA and protein expression, whereas TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA levels remained unaffected in cell lines. Thus, the ratio between MMP and TIMP was shifted towards MMP. Tumor cells did not increase the production of reactive oxygen species stimulation with phorbol ester or hydrogen peroxide. In RCC the balance between MMP and TIMP is disturbed. Oxidative stress potentially increases this imbalance. TAM might be one source of hydrogen peroxide thus supporting the invasive properties of RCCs.

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May 2004
Volume 24 Issue 5

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Hemmerlein, B., Johanns, U., Halbfass, J., Böttcher, T., Heuser, M., Radzun, H., & Thelen, P. (2004). The balance between MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1/-2 is shifted towards MMP in renal cell carcinomas and can be further disturbed by hydrogen peroxide. International Journal of Oncology, 24, 1069-1076. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.24.5.1069
MLA
Hemmerlein, B., Johanns, U., Halbfass, J., Böttcher, T., Heuser, M., Radzun, H., Thelen, P."The balance between MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1/-2 is shifted towards MMP in renal cell carcinomas and can be further disturbed by hydrogen peroxide". International Journal of Oncology 24.5 (2004): 1069-1076.
Chicago
Hemmerlein, B., Johanns, U., Halbfass, J., Böttcher, T., Heuser, M., Radzun, H., Thelen, P."The balance between MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1/-2 is shifted towards MMP in renal cell carcinomas and can be further disturbed by hydrogen peroxide". International Journal of Oncology 24, no. 5 (2004): 1069-1076. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.24.5.1069