Locoregional immunotherapy of malignant ascites from gastric cancer using DTH-oriented doses of the streptococcal preparation OK-432: Treatment of Th1 dysfunction in the ascites microenvironment

  • Authors:
    • Yoshiyuki Yamaguchi
    • Akiko Ohshita
    • Yoshiharu Kawabuchi
    • Jun Hihara
    • Eiji Miyahara
    • Kosuke Noma
    • Tetsuya Toge
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 1, 2004     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.24.4.959
  • Pages: 959-966
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Abstract

Locoregional administration of the streptococcal preparation OK-432 is effective in treating malignant ascites from gastric cancer. In order to enhance the efficacy, we conducted a pilot study of locoregional immunotherapy for malignant ascites using host-oriented doses of OK-432. Moreover, action mechanisms of OK-432 were further explored in view of the T-helper type 1 (Th1)-Th2 concept. Gastric cancer patients with cytologically determined malignant ascites were locoregionally administered with OK-432. The dose of OK-432 was selected according to the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction levels to OK-432. Cytokine production profiles of ascites cells were determined using whole ascites assay by stimulation with OK-432. IL-10 mRNA expression was analyzed using RT-PCR. It was found that a positive clinical response was observed in 37 of the 51 (73%) patients with the DTH-oriented approach, showing a significantly higher efficacy than traditional dosage methods using empirical doses (31/58, 53%) (p=0.0487). The DTH-oriented administration of OK-432 produced adverse effects such as fever elevation (p<0.0001) and abdominal pain (p=0.0013) to a significantly lesser extent compared with the traditional treatment. Analysis of the action mechanism of OK-432 revealed that the DTH reaction in responders (19±6 mm) was stronger than that in non-responders (6±4 mm) (p<0.0001). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production of ascites cells was also higher in responders (3943±1247 pg/ml) than in non-responders (1217±939 pg/ml) (p=0.0002). There was a significant positive correlation (p=0.0085) between the levels of DTH reaction and TNF-α production of ascites cells, but not of blood cells. Responders appeared to polarize on the Th1 axis when clinical responses were plotted on Th1-Th2 dimensions according to the cytokine production profiles of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-6 of ascites cells. In vitro culture with IL-2 of ascites cells after OK-432 administration demonstrated an almost clonal expansion of CD4+ lymphocytes, which produced TNF-α and IFN-γ, but did not produce IL-4 or IL-6. IL-10 mRNA expression was detectable in ascites cells from non-responders before treatment. These results suggest that the DTH-oriented locoregional administration of OK-432 may be both effective and less toxic in treating malignant ascites from gastric cancer, showing a possibility of the tailored immunotherapy for malignant ascites. Th1 dysfunction exists in the microenvironment of malignant ascites from gastric cancer, in which IL-10 may, in part, play a role. The up-regulation of Th1 responses by OK-432 may result in positive clinical responses. The DTH reaction to OK-432 may be a useful tool not only for predicting clinical response but also for selecting the optimal dose of OK-432.

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April 2004
Volume 24 Issue 4

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Yamaguchi, Y., Ohshita, A., Kawabuchi, Y., Hihara, J., Miyahara, E., Noma, K., & Toge, T. (2004). Locoregional immunotherapy of malignant ascites from gastric cancer using DTH-oriented doses of the streptococcal preparation OK-432: Treatment of Th1 dysfunction in the ascites microenvironment. International Journal of Oncology, 24, 959-966. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.24.4.959
MLA
Yamaguchi, Y., Ohshita, A., Kawabuchi, Y., Hihara, J., Miyahara, E., Noma, K., Toge, T."Locoregional immunotherapy of malignant ascites from gastric cancer using DTH-oriented doses of the streptococcal preparation OK-432: Treatment of Th1 dysfunction in the ascites microenvironment". International Journal of Oncology 24.4 (2004): 959-966.
Chicago
Yamaguchi, Y., Ohshita, A., Kawabuchi, Y., Hihara, J., Miyahara, E., Noma, K., Toge, T."Locoregional immunotherapy of malignant ascites from gastric cancer using DTH-oriented doses of the streptococcal preparation OK-432: Treatment of Th1 dysfunction in the ascites microenvironment". International Journal of Oncology 24, no. 4 (2004): 959-966. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.24.4.959