Alphavirus vectors for cancer gene therapy (Review)
Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata City 951-8585, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
- Published online on: April 1, 2004 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.24.4.919
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Alphaviruses have several characteristics that make them attractive as gene therapy vectors such as transient and high-level expression of a heterologous gene. Alphavirus vectors, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus (SIN) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) have been developed as gene expression vectors. Alphaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that can mediate efficient cytoplasmic gene expression in mammalian cells. The alphavirus RNA replication machinery has been engineered for high level heterologous gene expression. Since an RNA virus vector cannot integrate into chromosomal DNA, concerns about cell transformation are reduced. Alphavirus vectors demonstrate promise for the safe tumor-killing and tumor-specific immune responses. Recombinant alphavirus RNA replicons may facilitate gene therapy of cancer.