Association between SOX9 and CA9 in glioma, and its effects on chemosensitivity to TMZ

  • Authors:
    • Xiaoshan Xu
    • Zhen Wang
    • Nan Liu
    • Yingduan Cheng
    • Weilin Jin
    • Pengxing Zhang
    • Xin Wang
    • Hongwei Yang
    • Hui Liu
    • Yongsheng Zhang
    • Yanyang Tu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 26, 2018     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2018.4382
  • Pages: 189-202
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Abstract

Temozolomide (TMZ) is a standard chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); however, resistance to this drug is common. SRY-Box 9 (SOX9) expression is associated with a poor prognosis of patients with GBM and with resistance to TMZ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of SOX9 inhibition on the sensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ treatment. We knocked down the expression of SOX9 (SOX9KD) via lentiviral infection in two glioblastoma (U87 and U251) cell lines, and the cells were then subjected to gene microarray, Gene Ontology and KEGG analysis pathway, all of which revealed a close association between SOX9 and the carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) gene. The TMZ-mediated apoptosis of glioma cells was significantly increased in the cells in the SOX9KD group. The potential underlying mechanism involved the downregulation of SOX9 and CA9 expression, which in turn decreased Akt phosphorylation, downregulated BCL‑2 expression, and upregulated BAX expression, as assessed by western blot analysis and RT-qPCR. The effects were found to be substantially enhanced in the cells in the SOX9KD group treated with TMZ. Subsequently, considering the association between SOX9 and CA9, the effects of CA9 inhibition, using a CA9 inhibitor (U‑104), on the chemosensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ were assessed. The results revealed that the use of U‑104 + TMZ effectively induced glioma cell death, compared to treatment with TMZ alone. The underlying mechanisms were similar to those observed with the silencing of SOX9 in the TMZ-treated glioma cells. On the whole, the findings of this study establish the SOX9/CA9-mediated oncogenic pathway in glioma, the inhibition of which enhances the sensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ treatment, and thus highlights the value of developing small molecules or antibodies against the SOX9/CA9 pathway, for combination therapy with TMZ, in the more efficient management of glioma.
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July 2018
Volume 53 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Xu, X., Wang, Z., Liu, N., Cheng, Y., Jin, W., Zhang, P. ... Tu, Y. (2018). Association between SOX9 and CA9 in glioma, and its effects on chemosensitivity to TMZ. International Journal of Oncology, 53, 189-202. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2018.4382
MLA
Xu, X., Wang, Z., Liu, N., Cheng, Y., Jin, W., Zhang, P., Wang, X., Yang, H., Liu, H., Zhang, Y., Tu, Y."Association between SOX9 and CA9 in glioma, and its effects on chemosensitivity to TMZ". International Journal of Oncology 53.1 (2018): 189-202.
Chicago
Xu, X., Wang, Z., Liu, N., Cheng, Y., Jin, W., Zhang, P., Wang, X., Yang, H., Liu, H., Zhang, Y., Tu, Y."Association between SOX9 and CA9 in glioma, and its effects on chemosensitivity to TMZ". International Journal of Oncology 53, no. 1 (2018): 189-202. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2018.4382