The gonadotropin-releasing hormone system: Perspectives from reproduction to cancer (Review)

  • Authors:
    • Arturo Aguilar-Rojas
    • Marco Allan Pérez-Solis
    • Guadalupe Maya-Núñez
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  • Published online on: January 19, 2016     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2016.3346
  • Pages: 861-868
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Abstract

Recently, an increasing amount of evidence indicates that human gonadotropin-releasing hormone (hGnRH) and its receptor (hGnRHR) are important regulatory components not only to the reproduction process but also in the regulation of some cancer cell functions such as cell proliferation, in both hormone-dependent and -independent types of tumors. The hGnRHR is a naturally misfolded protein that is retained mostly in the endoplasmic reticulum; however, this mechanism can be overcome by treatment with several pharmacoperones, therefore, increasing the amount of receptors in the cell membrane. In addition, several reports indicate that the expression level of hGnRHR in tumor cells is even lower than in pituitary or gonadotrope cells. The signal transduction pathways activated by hGnRH in both gonadotrope and different cancer cell types are described in the present review. We also discuss how the rescue of misfolded receptors in tumor cells could be a promising strategy for cancer therapy.
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March 2016
Volume 48 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Aguilar-Rojas, A., Pérez-Solis, M.A., & Maya-Núñez, G. (2016). The gonadotropin-releasing hormone system: Perspectives from reproduction to cancer (Review). International Journal of Oncology, 48, 861-868. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2016.3346
MLA
Aguilar-Rojas, A., Pérez-Solis, M. A., Maya-Núñez, G."The gonadotropin-releasing hormone system: Perspectives from reproduction to cancer (Review)". International Journal of Oncology 48.3 (2016): 861-868.
Chicago
Aguilar-Rojas, A., Pérez-Solis, M. A., Maya-Núñez, G."The gonadotropin-releasing hormone system: Perspectives from reproduction to cancer (Review)". International Journal of Oncology 48, no. 3 (2016): 861-868. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2016.3346