Susceptibility of hepatoma-derived cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors is associated with ID2 expression
- Ryouichi Tsunedomi
- Norio Iizuka
- Sawako Harada
- Masaaki Oka
Published online on: February 6, 2013
Copyright: © Tsunedomi et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY_NC 3.0].
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Downregulation of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) is associated with poor prognosis in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, to search for effective antitumor drugs for the treatment of HCC exhibiting poor prognostic indicators, we used two HCC-derived cell lines (HuH-7 and HLE) to alter ID2 levels. Specifically, ID2 expression was knocked down in HuH-7 cells via transfection with ID2-specific small interfering RNAs and separately ID2 was overexpressed in HLE cells via an ID2 expression plasmid vector. To assess the effect of antitumor drugs, MTS assay was performed. Annexin V staining was used to evaluate apoptosis and real-time RT-PCR was used to measure mRNA levels. ID2 knockdown cells were more susceptible to histone deacethylase (HDAC) inhibitors including sodium butyrate (NaB), sodium 4-phenyl-butyrate, tricostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, MS-275, apicidin and HC-toxin. Conversely, cells that overexpressed ID2 were less susceptible than control cells to HDAC inhibitors. NaB-induced apoptosis was inversely correlated with ID2 expression. Expression of the anti-apoptotic mRNA BCL2 was induced by NaB in control cells, but this induction of BCL2 was inhibited by ID2 knockdown and strengthened by ID2 overexpression. Expression of another anti-apoptotic mRNA, BCL2L1, was decreased by NaB administration and then partially recovered. However, in ID2 knockdown cells, BCL2L1 levels did not recover from NaB-induced suppression. ID2 affected the susceptibility of two HCC-derived cell lines to an HDAC inhibitor by regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic genes. Therefore, HDAC inhibitors may be effective for the treatment of HCC for which the prognosis is poor based on ID2 downregulation and ID2 could serve as a marker that is predictive of the clinical response to HDAC inhibitors.