Genetic and epigenetic alterations are involved in the regulation of TPM1 in cholangiocarcinoma

  • Authors:
    • Wei Yang
    • Xiaoyuan Wang
    • Wei Zheng
    • Kedong Li
    • Haofeng Liu
    • Yueming Sun
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  • Published online on: December 17, 2012     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2012.1741
  • Pages: 690-698
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Abstract

Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor originating from biliary epithelial cells. The tumor suppressor gene tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) is downregulated in several human cancer types; however, its expression status in cholangiocarcinoma is still unknown. We elucidated TPM1 expression and its regulation mechanism in cholangiocarcinoma. Real-time (RT)-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine TPM1 expression levels in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and tumor tissues. Cell lines were treated with lentiviral vector containing the miR-21 knockdown and inhibitors of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms (manumycin A, LY294002, U0126, DAC and TSA), and the TPM1 expression change was observed by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration were evaluated by water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay, flow cytometry and wound healing experiments, respectively. TPM1 was downregulated in the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCCT1) and upregulated in the extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells (QBC939) compared with normal intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBEC). TPM1 stained negative in the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues, as revealed by immunohistochemistry, although there was no significant difference in staining of the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues and adjacent non-cancer tissues. RAS and two important downstream signaling pathways (RAS/PI3K/AKT and RAS/MEK/ERK) were involved in TPM1 regulation and inhibition of the epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone deacetylation and miR-21 upregulation upregulated TPM1 expression. Inhibitors of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms (manumycin A, LY294002, U0126, DAC and TSA) inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. These data indicated that TPM1 is downregulated in HuCCT1 cells and that the Ras signaling pathway as well as DNA methylation, histone deacetylation and miR-21 upregulation play important roles in the suppression of TPM1 expression in HuCCT1 cells. Thus, compounds that inhibit genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be promising agents in treating cholangiocarcinoma.
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February 2013
Volume 42 Issue 2

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Yang, W., Wang, X., Zheng, W., Li, K., Liu, H., & Sun, Y. (2013). Genetic and epigenetic alterations are involved in the regulation of TPM1 in cholangiocarcinoma. International Journal of Oncology, 42, 690-698. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2012.1741
MLA
Yang, W., Wang, X., Zheng, W., Li, K., Liu, H., Sun, Y."Genetic and epigenetic alterations are involved in the regulation of TPM1 in cholangiocarcinoma". International Journal of Oncology 42.2 (2013): 690-698.
Chicago
Yang, W., Wang, X., Zheng, W., Li, K., Liu, H., Sun, Y."Genetic and epigenetic alterations are involved in the regulation of TPM1 in cholangiocarcinoma". International Journal of Oncology 42, no. 2 (2013): 690-698. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2012.1741