Metabolic remodeling precedes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in human glioma xenograft cells

  • Authors:
    • Shivani Ponnala
    • Chandramu Chetty
    • Krishna Kumar Veeravalli
    • Dzung H. Dinh
    • Jeffrey D. Klopfenstein
    • Jasti S. Rao
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: November 7, 2011     https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2011.1255
  • Pages: 509-518
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Abstract

Glioma cancer cells adapt to changing microenvironment and shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis for their metabolic needs irrespective of oxygen availability. In the present study, we show that silencing MMP-9 in combination with uPAR/cathepsin B switch the glycolytic metabolism of glioma cells to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to predispose glioma cells to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. shRNA for MMP-9 and uPAR (pMU) as well as shRNA for MMP-9 and cathepsin B (pMC) activated complexes of mitochondria involved in OXPHOS and inhibited glycolytic hexokinase expression. The decreased interaction of hexokinase 2 with mitochondria in the treated cells indicated the inhibition of glycolysis activation. Overexpression of Akt reversed the pMU- and pMC-mediated OXPHOS to glycolysis switch. The OXPHOS un-coupler oligomycin A altered the expression levels of the Bcl-2 family of proteins; treatment with pMU or pMC reversed this effect and induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. In addition, our results show changes in mitochondrial pore transition to release cytochrome c due to changes in the VDAC-Bcl-XL and BAX-BAK interaction with pMU and pMC treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that pMU and pMC treatments switch glioma cells from the glycolytic to the OXPHOS pathway through an inhibitory effect on Akt, ROS induction and an increase of cytosolic cytochrome c accumulation. These results demonstrate the potential of pMU and pMC as therapeutic candidates for the treatment of glioma.

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February 2012
Volume 40 Issue 2

Print ISSN: 1019-6439
Online ISSN:1791-2423

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APA
Ponnala, S., Chetty, C., Veeravalli, K.K., Dinh, D.H., Klopfenstein, J.D., & Rao, J.S. (2012). Metabolic remodeling precedes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in human glioma xenograft cells. International Journal of Oncology, 40, 509-518. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2011.1255
MLA
Ponnala, S., Chetty, C., Veeravalli, K. K., Dinh, D. H., Klopfenstein, J. D., Rao, J. S."Metabolic remodeling precedes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in human glioma xenograft cells". International Journal of Oncology 40.2 (2012): 509-518.
Chicago
Ponnala, S., Chetty, C., Veeravalli, K. K., Dinh, D. H., Klopfenstein, J. D., Rao, J. S."Metabolic remodeling precedes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in human glioma xenograft cells". International Journal of Oncology 40, no. 2 (2012): 509-518. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2011.1255