Lipids: A key role in multidrug resistance? (Review).
- J Pallarés-Trujillo
- F J López-Soriano
- J M Argilés
Published online on: April 1, 2000
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Among tumoral resistances, multidrug resistance (MDR) is characterized as cross-resistance to a variety of structurally and functionally unrelated drugs such as vinca alkaloids, colchicine, and anthracyclines. Decreased drug cellular influx and increased cellular ability for drug extrusion are the main mechanisms involved in MDR. Two plasma membrane proteins, p-glycoprotein (p-gp) and the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), act as ATP-dependent cellular efflux. Furthermore, protein kinase C (PKC) is also central to MDR. The present study reviews the role of cholesterol and other lipids in the reduction of drug influx and drug binding to cellular membranes. The study also examines the effect of lipid composition on p-gp activity. Concerning the role of PKC in MDR, two phospholipases involved in diacylglycerol (DG) production increase in MDR cells. These are phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate-specific phospholipase C and phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D. A positive feedback mechanism for DG production which includes these phospholipases, a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase A2 has also been suggested. The hypothesis of exocytic involvement in MDR is reviewed, and some lipid changes found in MDR cells are interpreted according to those fusogenic properties normally involved in exocytic transport. Also, the possible role of lipid mediators, such as phosphatidic acid and platelet-activating factor, is examined.