The administration schedule of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene therapy and etoposide chemotherapy is a major determinant of cytotoxicity.
- N S Prabhu
- K Somasundaram
- H Tian
- G H Enders
- K Satyamoorthy
- M Herlyn
- W S El-Deiry
Affiliations: Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Cell Cycle Regulation, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
- Published online on: August 1, 1999 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.15.2.209
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Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are potent suppressors of cell growth and have been proposed as targets for gene replacement therapy in cancer. Expression of either p16INK4a or p21WAF1 protected cells from the cytotoxic effects of the topoisomerase II inhibitor, etoposide. A lower level of p53 was induced in CDK inhibitor-expressing etoposide-exposed cells suggesting that protection may be due to lower levels of DNA damage in the growth arrested cells. Exposure of human osteosarcoma cells to either p16INK4a or p21WAF1 prior to and during etoposide therapy protected cells against etoposide-induced cell death. Infection of the cells by Ad-p16INK4a or Ad-p21WAF1 following exposure to etoposide resulted in loss of the protective effect with evidence of enhanced growth inhibition. The results suggest that the schedule of administration of DNA damaging etoposide chemotherapy and cell cycle inhibitory therapy is a major determinant of the resulting cytotoxicity.