Induction of differentiation and apoptosis in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP by sodium butyrate and galectin-1.
- J Ellerhorst
- T Nguyen
- D N Cooper
- Y Estrov
- D Lotan
- R Lotan
Affiliations: Department of Melanoma/Sarcoma, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
- Published online on: February 1, 1999 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.14.2.225
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Galectin-1 has been implicated in the process of vertebrate developmental regulation. Sodium butyrate is an established differentiation-inducing agent and has been shown to increase galectin-1 expression in colon carcinoma cells. We studied the roles of butyrate and galectin-1 in the induction of differentiation and apoptosis in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Treatment of LNCaP cells with butyrate resulted in induction of galectin-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment with butyrate also resulted in inhibition of proliferation, morphologic changes consistent with a differentiated phenotype, and induction of apoptosis. Prostate specific antigen expression was transiently reduced. To determine which of these effects might be secondary to the induction of galectin-1, LNCaP cells were transfected with a galectin-1 expression vector. The transfected cells displayed growth inhibition and an increased rate of apoptosis. PSA expression was not affected. We conclude that galectin-1 may be responsible for many of the phenotypic changes resulting from butyrate treatment and may function downstream in the pathway of butyrate-induced differentiation. We also found PSA to be somewhat inconsistent as an indicator of differentiation of LNCaP cells, likely due to other factors influencing its expression.